Biblical Aspects of Acculturation

Biblical Aspects of Acculturaion
Integration Consideration
Secular Concepts ??“ acculturation assimilation, bicultural stance, separation, marginalization
Biblical concept ??“ biblical adaptation with integrity

Biblical adaptation with integrity
* The Christian adapts to the host culture in such a way as to establish meaningful relationships with people from that culture; however, the Christian does not compromise personal faith values and so maintains a stance of uncompromised integrity in any new attitudes and behaviors.
* Examples ??“ Joseph in Egypt (Genesis ch 37 ch 50)
* Daniel, Shadrach, Meshach, & Abednego in Babylon & Persia (book of Daniel)
* Ester (book of Esther)
* Ruth (book of Ruth)
Paul (Acts, 1 Corinthians)
Hudson Taylor (missionary to china)
As Christian adapting to another culture, we are not called to acculturation or assimilation. We are called to a process of prayerful discernment in which we display Biblical adaptation with Integrity. This is the principle see in the Old and New Testaments. We do not have to compromise to relate to people. Loving our neighbor as ourselves is a universal language that can led people to Christ.
The person may experience ??“ assimilation, separation, marginalization, biculturalization (integrated)
Typical Methods of Acculturation assessment in many clinics
* None is done
* – ???luck of the draw???
* Surname
* Asking the client whether she prefers a therapist of the same race/culture
Acculturation assessment ??“ acculturalization processes are complex. Often a client may behave in a more majority culture manner in one situation and a more original cultural way in another. Such behavior can complicate assessment and make the focus of therapy unclear. The therapist may have to determine whether a client with a particular set of problems will respond better to a bicultural approach, a more majority culture one, or whether the client will need both types of treatment, varying from situation to situation.

Acculturation as two continuums
-each MC client shows two continuums in adaption
Acculturation as multidimensional
Each MC client problem has at least 2 continuums for each problem. Also, the US is pluralistic rather than uniform
The above two continuums ratings change depending on the problem being discussed
Acculturation assessment: general areas
Which generation
Immigration experience
Years in country
Language usage
Social supports
Extant, short acculturation assessment instruments
Generation ??“ frequent differences in acculturation level between 1st, 2nd and 3rd generations ??“ a common source of family conflicts when adolescence occurs ( for ex., dating)
Immigration Context ??“ learning the conditions of the original family??™s departure
* War & political turmoil or stable homeland
* SES variables influence
Years in the Country ??“ deceptive in & of itself
More useful when other variables also considered (employment history, social environment, family environment)
Language usage ??“ one of the mains areas to consider
* What language were you thinking in the waiting room
* What language do you dream in the most
* What language do you speak in mostly with your friends ??“ family
* What are some of your favorite TV programs
* In general what language do you speak and read the most
* In what languages are the radio programs you listen to
Types of questions about Social Supports
Close friends
* Mostly ethnic White Estimated percentage of each
* What is the ethnicity / culture of your best friend
Preferred social gatherings
* Mostly original culture based
* Majority culture
* Mixed
For parents ??“
* If you choose your children??™s friends, who would yu prefer them to be Mostly ethnic White A mixture
* Least valid indicator in most acculturation assessment instruments
* Only use information on types of foods eaten in conjunction with other sources of information
Common Acculturation ??“ treatment issues
* Translator issues
* Translators can change the content
* Without counseling training, translators can minimize a client??™s problems
* Accultural marital issues
* Differ from inter-cultural marital issues
* Couple from the same general cultural background, but they have acculturated at different rates, leading to conflicts in the marriage
* Employment issues
* Adolescent conflicts
* Dating issues
* If at all possible, do not have the child/adolescent as the family translator
* Extant acculturation assessment instruments
* Acculturation assessment instruments are available for many cultural groups. Such instruments should be considered in clinics which are located in areas with high client cultural populations. Many of these instruments are short and can easily be added to a clinic??™s intake procedures for such clients. Utilize PsychInfo and other databases to find these instruments.
* The white population
* Racial discrimination towards other groups
* Reacations/feelings along two continuums
* Guilt vs. denial
* Defensiveness vs overcompensation
* Limited awareness of legitimate minority population needs
* More awareness of how some take advantage of diversity-related programs in a manipulative fashion vs those with legitimate needs who have been helped
* Reverse discrimination has sensitized the white population to the outrage of discrimination based on race
* When will discrimination of all sorts end.
* Who is white in the US ??“ historicall the definition has varied over time
* Started with wealthy colonial English
* These originally discriminated against and not considered White
* – irish
* Scotch ??“ irsh
* Polish
* Italians
* Germans
Within group whites differences ??“
Education level
* Geographic region ??“ the deep south vs California
* Religious differences
* SES level
* Degree of maintenance of cultural patterns varies from original ethnic groups
* White differential experience
* Experiences common for Whites that may not be common for other ethnic groups
* Assurance of being with someone from your race if you so desire most of the tiem during the day
* Shopping with less concern of being watched for shoplifting or harassed
* Watching TV with members of your race represented in the programs
* When using checks or credit cards at a store, you can feel assured your race will not be a suspicion for the clerk
* Common Values ??“
* Individualism
* Strong work ethic
* External signs of success
* Within group variation for the above
* Meritocracy ??“
* A more realistic modified meritocracy more helpful
* Life is not fair ??“ unequal resources, unequal access. ??“ however with hard work you can overcome these obstacles
* We should work to create more opportunity in the system for everyone
* Individual choices, values, & beliefs matter and will impact your success wherever your starting point in life is.
* Treatment strategies ??“ Values exploration
* While whites may be uncomfortable with the term ???ethnic identity??? in therapy because it appears meaningless to them, they are much more open to exploring their core values and beliefs.
* Empirically supported treatments ??“
* CBT , interpersonal psychotherapy, EMDR ??“ eye movement desensitization routine
Two sides of the Debate
– Multicultural literature portrayal
– Other aspects rarely considered in such literature
Need for balance

Multicultural Literature Portrayal
* Oppressive
* Evil as a superpower
* Native Americans
* Blacks/African Americans
* Women
* Developing Countries
* Civil War
* Native American Education changes
* Voting Rights
* Ethnic & women??™s civil rights progress
* Legislation
* Education
* Opportunity
* President Obama, general colin powell, bill cosby
* Sarah palin, hiliary Clinton, condolezza Rice, oprah winfrey
* Oppressor or maintainer of Freedom
* World War I, II, Cold War ??“ International human rights and freedom exist because of the US Role in winning each of the above wars
* Opressor or benevolent Country
* World disasters & U.S. Government aid ??“ Haiti (200(, other earthquakes, Tsunami (2004)
* Ministries and private charitable organizations
* Well water projects example
* Agriculture improvements
* Education
* Evil portrayal has advantages for some countries
* Averts other countries responsibility in their situation
* Blaming the US diverts responsibility for each country to generate jobs and industries ??“ examples ??“ countries rich in oil
* The behavior of immigrants themselves
* Why are so many immigrants (legal and Illegal) trying to get in to the U.S.
* If the U.S. was such a horrible country, people would not be trying to get in!
* The behavior of immigrants themselves is a tell-tale sign that things are not so terrible in the U.S. People are not stupid. If the United States was such a horrible country with such terrible racism and oppression, why are so many legal and illegal immigrants trying to get into the U.S. Evidently, billions of people all over the world see the U.S. as a beacon of freedom (not oppression) and opportunity. Despite the risks, despite the problems, despite the dangers, people are ???breaking the doors down??? to get into the United States. Yes, there still are racial and discriminatory problems in the U.S., don??™t misunderstand me, but immigrants feel these current problems can??™t compare to the opportunities that would come to them from just being here. In short, immigrants are saying something with their feet. If their countries were better than the U.S. regarding equal rights, discrimination, safety, and opportunity, they would stay there. Indeed, even people in the U.S. would be leaving the country! People want to be here because there is something special going on here. Truly, this is the land of opportunity.
* Portraying the U.S. as ???evil??? also has advantages for some countries. It averts their responsibility in dealing with their country??™s problems. Blaming the U.S. keeps people from recognizing the duties their governments have for stimulating their economies to generate jobs and develop industries. For example, think of the oil rich countries in the Middle East, Mexico, and Venezuela. They literally can hold the entire world hostage with this resource. They should be the most prosperous nations, with a thriving middle class, many jobs, and much prosperity. Blaming the U.S. keeps people distracted from the few outrageously rich people and government officials who are making incredible amounts of money while the nation??™s populace as a whole suffers tremendously. Something??™s wrong with this picture, and it has to do with a lot more than the U.S.
* When a nation experiences a disaster, who is the first nation to come to its aid Over and over again, it??™s the United States. Who spends the most money in supplying foreign aid in situations like Haiti??™s earthquake in 2009, tsunamis, and other international disasters Over and over again, it??™s the U.S. This goes beyond official government aid. Ministries and private charitable organizations build medical centers, dig wells in drought-stricken areas, develop agricultural improvements, and provide education for people who would not get it otherwise. In looking at the history of superpowers, one can make a case that the U.S. is the most giving superpower in history.
* s the U.S. an oppressor of countries or a maintainer of freedom Without the U.S. involvement in World Wars I, II, and the Cold War, what would the world be like today There would be no democracy, no freedom, no human rights in the world. The Nazis, fascist dictators, and communists would have won. There would be no free government systems at all. In short, international human rights and freedom exist because of the U.S. role in winning each of the above named wars. Without it, life for the entire world would be under oppressive forms of government control.
* One of the most amazing things about the U.S. that is sometimes missed is how it goes through a process of self-reflection and change over time. It does not stay the same. A civil war was fought and Blacks were freed from this evil. Boarding schools that once attempted to forcibly acculturate Native Americans were eventually changed instead to affirm tribal cultures. Voting rights were established and civil rights legislation passed to safeguard the rights and welfare of ethnic minorities and women. The education system in the U.S. changed to include more multicultural perspectives. Little by little, we??™ve seen a steady growth in the opportunities for ethnically diverse people and women. For example, President Obama, General Colin Powell, Bill Cosby, and others are providing new role models for the Black community. For women, Sarah Palin, Hilary Clinton, Condoleezza Rice, and Oprah Winfrey inspire women to believe that more opportunities exist now than they once thought. In short, the United States has changed for the better in regards to ethnic and women??™s issues. Yes, there is still plenty of room to grow, but over time, the U.S. has demonstrated a capacity for self reflection and change. That is a great strength.
* The multicultural literature has been correct to point out the serious atrocities in the U.S.??™ history. The genocide of Native Americans, slavery and oppression of African Americans, the historical mistreatment of women, and, internationally, a sense of abusive treatment of developing world countries. Focusing on these issues is needed when considering what the U.S. is as a country. Are there other areas to consider as well
* The multicultural literature basically focuses on the U.S. as an oppressive country. The general undertone in some books gives you the sense that the U.S. is evil as a superpower.
* he multicultural movement has impacted the educational system in the U.S. over the years. Due to its influence, important flaws in the U.S., mistakes, and areas of oppression have increasingly been recognized. This was a needed correction. What I find interesting is that some students have not been adequately exposed to other aspects of the United States??™ history. It seems the pendulum has swung the other way too far, so this presentation seeks to restore a healthy sense of balance, where both strengths and weaknesses are acknowledged.
* Again, my goal here is balance. The U.S. does have real problems in the areas of equal rights and discrimination, as the multicultural literature has pointed out well. The negative labels in some of the MC literature however imply a static state when the U.S. actually is dynamic and changing for the better with time. We need to consider all aspects of information on the U.S. to come to a balanced perspective. We must recognize the history of oppression, discrimination, mistakes, and sins of the U.S. majority culture. We also need to recognize the progress in dealing with these issues over time as well. We need to keep in mind the positive historical contributions of the U.S. as well as its mistakes. We also need to consider the implications of the immigrants themselves. People vote with their feet, and a lot are saying they want to be here. Each person has to ask some important questions: Has the U.S. made progress in dealing with significant social issues such as ethnic & women??™s rights over the last 100 years Has the world benefited from the U.S. existing over the last 100 years Your answers may vary. Each person is challenged to get enough information on the positives and negatives to make a balanced assessment.
* Religious diversity
* must start this presentation with the awareness of my audience. Many of you are Christians; however, some of you belong to other faiths or no faith at all. I will endeavor to be respectful of each of you in the presentation that follows. In terms of full disclosure, I am a born again evangelical Christian. We??™re going to focus in this presentation on why multicultural and general counseling text chapters on religion often are written in an eastern,??™???new age???, sort of way, and what the implications are of this stance. Topics will include religious demographics of the U.S., psychologists??™ religious demographics, secular counseling values, counseling techniques derived from religion, the values of monotheistic religions compared to eastern religions, and some implications.
* ake a look at the statistics described in this chart. 76-87% (depending on the study) of people in the U.S. describe themselves as Christian. 1% are Jewish, and smaller percentages are Muslim, Buddhist, or Hindu. 13% describe themselves as nonreligious. Yet, many multicultural texts use eastern definitions and concepts though the percentage of this population is small. For example, many define God as ???Spirit??? or ???energy???. This strikes me as very inconsistent with the premises of multicultural counseling. One of the goals of multicultural counseling is to communicate in a way that adapts to your audience so that they can receive your message. Talking in Eastern language and concepts when most of your audience is monotheistic is culturally insensitive.
* Examining some of the religious characteristics of counselors and psychologists compared to the U.S. population may help us understand some of why this is occurring. The best recent study was published by Delaney, Miller, & Bosono in 2007 in Professional Psychology: Research and Practice. Take a look at those percentages compared to the U.S. population. 16% of psychologists sampled espouse the category ???none??? (agnostic, atheist, or no religion) compared to 6% for the U.S. 15% adopt ???Other??? as their religious category. This would include Eastern religions. This is compared to 1% of the U.S. population. As for the importance of religion, the % of the U.S. population who state they base their whole approach to life on their religion is over twice as high as the % of psychologists claiming to do the same. These differences may account for some of the writing style differences.
* ooking at secular counseling values can also help us understand this unusual disregard for the cultural characteristics of counseling text audiences. Here are a few of the values found in secular counseling, as well as their stance on God. First, the self is good. No doubt about it. No ifs, ands, or buts. Second, morals are all relative. There??™s no such thing as an absolute. Also, just thinking about God in and of itself is an uncomfortable subject. God has been pathologized by some prominent counseling theorists such as Freud and Ellis. As more and more research has been done on religious people, however, this has led to a reevaluation of such negative stances. Most of this research was done in the U.S. with high %s of people from a Christian background. The results have led to more openness to religion and spirituality. Along the way, another value emerged: All religions were equal, with no religion better than another. Also, given the lack of comfort with organized religion, ???spirituality??? became a much more comfortable way of talking about faith.
* he research findings on religion led to more openness to exploring techniques derived from religion. Interestingly, these have been derived from Hinduism and Buddhism. What is so surprising about this is that monotheistic traditions all have similar ???techniques??? that could be developed that are much more congruent with the worldview of their adherents. Now, again, if you??™re Buddhist, New Age, or Hindu viewing this PointCast, I??™m not attacking your faith. I am pointing out that researching techniques derived from such religions doesn??™t fit with the religion of the U.S. audience. The Christian spiritual formation literature, for example, has much potential to develop similar counseling techniques. Muslims have a Sufi tradition that could lead to more sensitive techniques for them. The Jewish tradition likewise has a contemplative vein that could lead to religiously congruent techniques. Given the client population, why weren??™t these researched before eastern religions
* Examining the beliefs of Eastern religions compared to monotheistic religions may help us understand this culturally insensitive choice. Many Eastern religions (for example, many versions of Buddhism) have no god at all. Many also describe impersonal forces or ???energy??? (Taoism for example discusses ???Chi???, a life force energy). Some eastern religions also contain a belief that is very different than monotheistic views of the self. Hinduism states that Brahman is Atman and Atman is Brahman. Some counseling authors interpret this to mean that God is enlightened self and enlightened self is God. Those students viewing this presentation coming from a Muslim, Christian, or Jewish background might want to recall the fall of Satan and its similarities to that statement. Satan was not satisfied being a created being subject to God; rather, he wanted to be God. This pride led to his fall. From the monotheistic stance of three major religions, therefore, such a statement is more than inaccurate. It??™s spiritually perilous. If you??™re a Hindu viewing this presentation, you know a proper interpretation of the above statement is much more nuanced. I??™m focusing on how most counseling authors interpret it. Regarding morals, eastern religions have moral value statements that are very similar to monotheistic religions in regards to how to treat people, but I do not know enough about them to say whether these may involve absolutes. Consider these overall Eastern beliefs on this slide. As you examine them, think about the secular counseling values previously described. Do you see some similarities For example, the counseling interpretation of Hinduism that enlightened self is god and god is enlightened self has similarities with the counseling belief that self is good.
* The three major monotheistic religious systems (Islam, Judaism, and Christianity) also have common beliefs. These common beliefs stand in contrast to Eastern conceptualizations, though many multicultural religion chapters try to imply they are the same. For monotheistic traditions, God is not an impersonal force, nonexistent, or the same as an enlightened ???me???. God is a real being with a personality who is distinct from human beings. Let??™s consider the self. In counseling, the self is good. In monotheistic religions, the self is a more complicated subject. As we??™ve discussed from a Christian perspective in previous weeks, for example, we are created in the image of God, so we have the potential to do good things. We are also fallen, however, and so we have the propensity to do evil as well. Monotheistic religions believe some morals are absolute. Let??™s take an extreme example. It??™s wrong, for instance, to rape a new born baby. Here??™s a less extreme example. Most of you belief that it??™s wrong for multicultural counseling professors to grade their students assignments unfairly. If you do not believe in at least some absolutes, you cannot state either of these beliefs clearly. Monotheistic religions also believe that one religion is better than the others. Muslims believe their religion is the best. Orthodox Jews believe theirs is, and evangelical Christians believe theirs is. Adherents to each of these religions will try to convince you that theirs is the best. Now it??™s important to note that having a religious opinion and sharing it are not the same as intolerance. A small sliver of radical extremists do become violent, but billions of Muslims, Christians, and Jews live peacefully in the same countries all over the world. And, sometimes, tragically, they do not. Generally though free will choice is still respected in most contexts. Now think about the beliefs described above and compare them to secular counseling values. Can you see how these values conflict with secular counseling values Indeed, can you see the reason why we have to have integration programs like Liberty University to train students coming from such belief systems Without such schools, students would be force-fed Eastern religious ideology that is embedded in counseling chapters on religion and spirituality.
* Before getting to the implications, I want to be clear with you again as a student that I??™m not attacking you if you??™re a Buddhist, new age practitioner, a Hindu, a Muslim, or any other religion. I may disagree with you, but, consistent with my beliefs, I respect your freewill choice. There are implications to the choice of many secular multicultural writers??™ to adopt an Eastern framework for their discussions of religion and spirituality. One is that text chapters on religious diversity will be cumbersome and strange for the majority of their audience. Some authors do adopt a more monotheistic stance in their explorations (See the text of Richards & Bergin, 2005, for example), but the majority of counseling texts do appear to adopt this Eastern style. This choice appears culturally insensitive and inconsistent with the client population that counselors will deal with in the U.S
* Another implication, more important, also is apparent. Counseling authors have made a choice to advocate for a specific answer to an important question. The question is: Does God require anything of me, or am I only accountable to myself In other words, am I the god of my life I alone get to decide what??™s right and wrong, what God is like, and what is valuable in life. Some multicultural counseling theorists have implicitly taken their position in their writings, as intonated in the embedded values that we??™ve explored. How each of us answers this question ourselves will lead to significant potential outcomes. In most eastern religions, God is defined in an impersonal way so the question itself changes. In monotheistic religions, if I choose to say ???No, I??™m not accountable to anything but myself,??? I will live for myself and may justify any act based only on my needs, with no regard for the needs of others. I can be considerate when I want, but I don??™t have to. There can always be a reason to put me first. I also am making assumptions about what happens after death. If I say ???Yes, I am accountable,??? I may be more motivated to consider the needs of others and balance those needs with my own. I can also fall into a cycle of focusing so much on trying to do good works and perform the proper rituals that I live my life in fear and anxiety worried about whether I am truly saved (having a safe, secure relationship with God). A third option is to say ???Yes, I am accountable,??? and to place my life in the hands of One I trust to secure my relationship with God. For me as a Christian, that would be Jesus Christ. I still would be motivated to do good works, but these would be out of love and thankfulness for salvation as opposed to doing good works to earn salvation. There??™s a pitfall in this decision, too. I might take my salvation for granted so much that my love grows cold, or I might fool myself into thinking I??™ve placed my life in God??™s hands when I really haven??™t. Each of these decisions has implications for how we live our lives. Multicultural counseling texts have made their decisions and advocated for them. We each must make our own decision. Who will be the god of your life I pray that you decide wisely.
* his presentation focuses on ethical principles in working with religiously different clients. It focuses on professional secular settings as opposed to clearly ministry-related settings.
* What??™s best for the client??™s mental health always is the top consideration in your work. You want to provide what??™s optimal for the client. Respect for diversity is another important principle. If you are practicing in a secular clinic, government setting, secular hospital, etc., you do not impose your faith on someone who does not share it. Awareness of your personal values is also important. It??™s okay to recognize it if you??™re faith or other values will impact your ability to work with a client from a different religion. It can be beneficial to try to learn to work with clients from different religious backgrounds, especially if you see yourself called to working in secular professional environments. This does not mean that you endorse the client??™s beliefs, but that you are sensitive to how their faith impacts their mental health condition. You will encounter a variety of religious faiths in secular contexts. Referral is appropriate when you see significant faith differences that may end up harming the client??™s treatment.
* Evaluating your competency to treat a specific client is always important. This includes more than culture and religious variables, it can also include SES, the particular diagnosis, and other aspects. Right now you are a student in training, so it??™s expected that you will be learning how to work with different people through supervision, consultation, consulting the literature, and other means. These practices can help you grow in becoming competent to treat a variety of people. Making sure the client knows enough about therapy with you to make up his/her mind is important, especially if you plan on setting up a Christian therapy practice after you are licensed. Go with the type of informed consent procedures in place at your practicum and internships. Learn all you can there. I??™ve posted two sample informed consents that might be helpful after a few years when you??™re practicing as a licensed counselor. These describe my training in dealing with faith issues in therapy. One is for a specifically Christian-based practice and another is for a practice more geared to spiritual issues in general. You can see that your personal values would determine which you might want to adapt for your own use. Remember, you would use these along with your regular informed consent that describes general counseling issues (confidentiality, fees, calls, etc.). Following these five ethical principles (client welfare, respect for diversity, personal values, competency to treat, and informed consent) will help you learn to work with a variety of people.
* he Latino population goes by a variety of names. Each can have different connotations dependent on the particular subculture you are dealing with. For example, some Latinos do not like the term ???Hispanic??? because of its historical connection with Spain and Spain??™s conquest/mistreatment of the native peoples of Central and South America. Because of this, ???Latino??? is a safe starting point to address this population. Learn from the client what particular term he or she prefers.
* he Latino population is now the largest ethnic minority population in the U.S.
* Census counts are often inaccurate, so the actual percentage may be even than current numbers indicate. This population is also young, with a mean age about 11 years lower than Whites. The three largest groups of Latinos in the U.S. are Mexicans, Puerto Ricans, & Cubans.
* Latinos tend to value large families. They sometimes live in crowded small apartments or homes when they immigrate here. In the short term missions work I??™ve done in Latino countries, I??™ve seen that these living conditions in the U.S. are quite good compared to the options in their own country. In other words, U.S. poverty is a higher standard of living for many Latinos compared to their own countries. This has helped me understand more of the motivation of many indigent Latinos to come here, though it??™s illegal. This does not excuse the behavior however and I don??™t believe that people who want the border secure and a well thought out immigration policy are automatically racists. That??™s ridiculous, especially when you see some of the crime and chaos going on along the border areas of the U.S.. Some of my friends live near the border and this has helped me see both perspectives. Still, as I said, I could see myself taking the risk to enter illegally if I was a father with a family who had no work living in a country with a horrible economy. If I get caught, I pay the consequences. Now if the border became secure, I may not attempt to cross because the odds would increase that I would get caught. So there??™s your attempt at a balanced perspective that may contradict some of the perspectives advocated in some multicultural texts.
* Okay, moving on. When Latinos get here, many live in urban areas, though some are also ???hidden??? in rural regions. As I??™ve noted, there??™s a ???poverty trade-off??? for some of these immigrants. A high unemployment rate and substandard housing here in the U.S. combine with semiskilled or unskilled labor occupations to make the first generation??™s living conditions challenging. Also, many illegal immigrants who are fathers send money back home so that their families can live better or perhaps buy a home. They may work here for a few years and then return home.
* hildren tend to pick up English quicker than adults; however, those coming here many times need bilingual education programs in school to begin with. The way these programs are set up can lead to controversy. Some are set up with the goal of transitioning eventually to English classes, while other school districts try to set up programs that permit children to remain in Spanish education classes throughout their education. It??™s interesting that surveys of Latino parents show that the parents want their children to learn English as quickly as possible. The sentiment appears to be ???We can teach our children Spanish at home. They need to learn English to prosper in the U.S.??? Thus, how these programs are set up sometimes depends more on the political leanings of the school boards and local governments than it does on the actual wishes of the Latino parents!
* Now, we have to figure out education for Latino immigrants soon, because the high school dropout rate for Latinos is higher than for African Americans and Whites. College completion rates are also low compared to these other groups. Combine these two facts with the unskilled or semi-skilled work skills of some first generation immigrants, and you have a recipe for generational poverty. The education crisis continues for some subcultures such as the Mexican population. Other groups such as the Cuban population have less of an educational crisis.
* So what are some common Latino values Unity, loyalty to the family and friends, and cooperation are key. The family itself is often an extended network of family and friends (these may be affectionately ???adopted??? as uncles and aunts). In Catholic homes, the Godparents may take on a nurturing role with children. The heavy emphasis on family values and Catholicism leads to divorce being seen as less acceptable.
* There are other religions besides Catholicism, however, in Latin America. Evangelical Protestantism is growing. Some multicultural texts do not recognize the rapid growth of this subgroup, but it??™s on the rise in many countries, including my country of Argentina. Folk religions also play a part in many countries. Sometimes people will combine elements of Catholicism or Evangelical Protestantism with folk religions to create blends of religion known as syncretism.
* Let??™s take a look at some issues that may need to be considered with working with Latino immigrants. First, consider the language. If English is spoken as a second language, the client may benefit from working with a therapist who speaks his or her native language. This should not automatically be done, but should be carefully considered. The person??™s immigration status and stressors are also important. Did the person flee from political violence Poverty Was the person robbed/abused during the journey Etc. The loss of the extended family network is a big stressor. One of the early things a therapist can do to help a recent immigrant is help the person plug into a good Latino church or other community resources that would permit the rebuilding of an extended social network. Acculturation, of course, is a big issue. Not all Latinos are the same. We??™ve discussed some acculturation assessment strategies in another lecture. Home behavioral health may be a good treatment option to consider for an enculturated Latino family because of the differences in time conception. Now Latinos often learn quickly about the importance of timeliness in the U.S. for professional appointments, but it is something to keep in mind. Also, enculturated Latinos may tend to ask more personal questions of the therapist to get a sense of who you are as a person. Use wisdom in answering these, but you don??™t want to appear as a ???blank slate??? for enculturated Latinos.
* The ???Macho??? male still is an operating source of male identity for some men in the Latino culture. ???Macho??? men deny feelings, illness, pain, as these are seen as signs of weakness. They convey a strong need to be the main ???provider??? for the family, and because of this, unemployment can be a particularly big crisis. Such men rarely will come to therapy being identified as a client; however, sometimes I??™ve been able to get them to come in to serve as a ???consultant??? to help their wives. Allowing them this sense of identity lowers their defenses enough to show up and consider some of your input, if it??™s carefully worded. Creativity is required.
* Marianismo is a complementary identity set for some Latina women. This identity stresses purity, sacrificial care for family, and the raising of daughters as chaste.
* The emancipated woman is a Latina who has adopted more acculturated ways. Sometimes these women are still attracted to more traditional ???macho??? men, as one??™s family template is one of the last things that changes in acculturation. Such marriages with large acculturation differences can be especially challenging.
* Here are some things to keep in mind when working with enculturated Latinos. If the client may come from an illegal immigration background, it sometimes is helpful to clarify as a part of confidentiality that you will not report them to the immigration service. This must be done carefully, of course. In regards to your particular strategies, these can vary. Some authors advocate concrete and structured strategies while others encourage more insight-oriented approaches. Within-group subcultural differences may account for these various recommendations, as well as considerations of acculturation. It??™s helpful to have a discussion with Latino clients about their expectations for therapy and to orient them to the process.
* Enculturated Latinos will likely respect you as an authority figure in therapy. It will be important for you to connect your client with appropriate social service agencies if poverty and unemployment issues exist. Family therapy may also be a viable option. Keep in mind some of my comments though about Macho males if you do work with an enculturated father or husband as part of the family system. Whatever the treatment, it is often expected to be short-term and crisis oriented for enculturated clients.
* sian Americans are a rapidly growing population. Currently, they make up 4% of the U.S. population. Many are foreign born, recent immigrants, so there are a lot of first and second generation people here. Given this situation, you can imagine that there might be generational acculturation issues between immigrating parents and their teens who have grown up in the U.S. In some ways, Asian Americans can struggle with a perpetual foreigner label no matter how long or how many generations their family has lived here. Scholars think this may relate to the differences in facial features around the eyes. Imagine being considered a foreigner when you were born and raised here. There are some signs of increasing acceptance though as well. These include the percentages of interracial marriages that are occurring with other ethnicities.
* While a large number of Asians are immigrating to the U.S., all Asian Americans are not recent immigrants. We can learn much from their earlier history when we consider some of the issues today. In the 1840??™s, the Chinese immigrated to the U.S. due to political unrest at home and the advertisement of jobs to help build the transcontinental railroad. They were initially welcomed because of the need for workers on the railroad. After it was completed, however, and an economic recession hit, persecution of the Chinese began. They were seen now as an economic threat. Anti-Chinese legislation led to the denial of rights. Racial crimes were a common occurrence.
* hen one looks at the Japanese experience in the late 1890??™s when the economy had recovered and was booming again, one sees a similar pattern. They were welcomed and filled the need for workers until the next set of economic problems. The Gentlemen??™s Agreement and Alien Land Law in 1913 are examples of laws that stripped them of many common privileges. During WWII, 110,000 Japanese were put in refugee camps.
* So what are some of the lessons we can learn from looking at this history First, when the economy is booming and there??™s a need for workers, immigrants are seen as being important in filling the need and helpful in doing tasks that U.S. citizens are less open or available to do. However, when the economy takes a downturn, immigrants are seen as a competitor to U.S. citizens for jobs and a symbolic threat that needs to be controlled.
* There are some differences in today??™s environment as well. Terrorism adds a serious new variable. Many immigrants are also coming here illegally so the ability to control the flow of immigration has been compromised. Some multicultural authors have even taken the position that having any kind of immigration controls over who enters the U.S. represents racism and oppression. For some people this idea is philosophically appealing; however, it??™s dangerous practically. First, at the time of this writing, there have been several attempted terrorist attacks in the U.S. An open border would allow terrorists to easily enter the U.S. in the middle of a war on terrorism. Does that make sense Second, no controls would lead to a flood of immigrants to the U.S. In short, the country could not absorb the flood and maintain its culture, medical and social services. I have friends who now live on the border areas of the country and have seen the challenges of the current situation. Even as a Latino American, I can tell you it??™s not pretty. An open border would make matters even more chaotic. It??™s easy to talk about open borders when you don??™t live near the borders and you don??™t experience some of the crime and dangers. Live there a couple of years and then let??™s talk. You may have a different perspective. I respect that. I??™ve come to realize that wanting a sane immigration policy with secure borders is not tantamount to racism, though some multicultural authors would have you believe this. At the time of this PointCast, the situation is still a mess and needing much prayer.
* Many Asians immigrating in the 1970??™s were refugees. Fleeing a situation in an emergency and becoming a refugee creates a different set of treatment issues than typical immigration. The Vietnamese and Cambodians after the Vietnam war, Iraqi war refugees, Tsunami victims, Hurricane Katrina victims in 2005 all have this experience of being a refugee. In these situations there is little or no time to prepare. The person has little control over their own fate in the emergency. The emergency can relate to war, political unrest, or natural disasters. Many witness murders, deaths, or tragedies and have to leave behind family members. Given these sorts of experiences, PTSD symptoms are common in refugees. They often wait in refugee camps under horrible conditions for long periods of time before they get relocated to a safe and stable area.
* When examining the Asian community, some have advocated that they represent a model minority population. While there are some positive statistics, one has to be careful with such a label because it leads you to overlook important areas of need. Positive statistics include high levels of academic achievement, low levels of delinquency, a higher median income compared to the White population, and the high rate of business ownership. These general statistics can hide significant subcultural differences. The American Hmong, for example, have drastically different statistics. Also, in regards to income levels, Asian Americans often live in high cost urban areas and frequently have several wage earners in family to make ends meet. As I just noted in mentioning the Hmong, there are significant within group differences in SES. Frequently, Asian American communities attempt to conceal their poor neighborhoods, in part due to concerns about a loss of face and in part to maintain high levels of tourism in urban areas.
* everal common values can be seen in East Asian cultures such as Japan and China. These cultures emphasize a collectivistic worldview compared to the individualistic worldview found in the U.S. majority culture. Collectivism focuses on the importance of the needs of the group as a whole compared to the individual. This can be seen in a closely related value–harmony in relationships. Traditional East Asian cultures try to avoid overt competition. For example, think about the types of small businesses you see that are common amongst traditional enculturated Asian Americans??”ethnic restaurants, dry cleaners and laundromats, etc. Do you notice how these attempt to fill a need and are businesses that the White population seldom go into This fits with the collectivistic emphasis on harmony and adaptation versus competition. There also is a traditional emphasis on hierarchical relationships, although younger generations are moving away from this value. Related to hierarchy, there is a deference to authority, high respect is shown to those in authority. Emotional restraint is a common characteristic. Subcultures can vary on this, especially after they get to know you, but emotional restraint is commonly seen as a virtue in many Asian countries. A linked value is using physical complaints to deal with psychological and emotional stress.
* he traditional Asian family is patriarchal and extended, with authority passed down from father to son. Gender roles are rigidly defined. The extended family emphasizes harmony and structure, so it??™s resistant to change and conflicts are discouraged. Given the collectivistic worldview, there is an emphasis on obedience to elders, obligation to family, and conformity. As I??™ve mentioned, there is some change in these values in the younger generations of many countries, in part due to their exposure to U.S. individualistic values seen in movies, media, and on the internet. This has caused some generational tensions.
* Loss of face??? involves the shame & guilt a family member experiences when s/he dishonors the family. These feelings are experienced by all members of the family as well as the person committing the dishonorable act. It is much broader and deeper than individualistic persons in the U.S. would feel for embarrassing their families. Partly because of this, family members are encouraged to resolve problems within the family rather than with therapy.
* There are within group differences in the types of Asian American families in the U.S. There are the traditional families with traditional Asian values, families in culture conflict where the children adopt more individualistic values and practices (such as dating) compared to the older generations. Bicultural families try to maintain their Asian traditions and selectively adopt U.S. cultural practices. Americanized families have adopted an assimilation stance and lost their traditional values. New Millennium families reflect marriages from two different Asian cultures (Japanese and Chinese, for example) or marriages between Asians and other non-Asian ethnicities.
* The above religions are common in Asia. These are described in many multicultural texts. Buddhism, Confucianism (which is more of a philosophy than a religion), Hinduism, Shintoism and other ancestor worship variants, and Christianity. With increased contact with the West, Christianity is growing in many areas.
* Traditional Asians also vary in their communication style. Contrary to the ???tell it like it is??? direct style of the U.S. (known as low context communication for its lower emphasis on subtle, indirect context aspects), Asians use high context forms of communication. These rely much more on nonverbals, the specific setting, & shared group understandings of the nuanced meaning of what the speaker says. I??™ll give you an example. Let??™s say I??™m presenting a paper at a conference in Japan. At the end of my presentation, I invite my Japanese colleagues to critique the paper. Every professor states he or she likes the paper and praises it. I go away thinking I wrote a great paper! One problem, however. In the high context communication style of the Japanese culture in the conference setting, it??™s not what the professors said as much as how much and how long! A professor who states ???I liked your paper, very nice,??? and quickly sits down has just indirectly said that there were problems with the paper! Everyone in the audience will know this except me unless I realize that it??™s the amount of time and praise of the paper that will tell me how many problems my colleagues see with it. The high context form of communication has direct implications for the therapy setting. Traditional Asians will think it impolite to say ???No??? to a homework suggestion. They may say ???Yes??? and just not do it! You have to listen for verbal tone, nonverbal actions, etc. to get a sense of whether a homework assignment needs to be readjusted.
* Why are mental health services underutilized by traditional Asian Americans First, using such services would set up a loss of face. Asian cultures have a strong stigma associated with going to see a counselor. Also, mental health services may not be culturally adapted for Asians. Therapists wanting to develop an Asian client base need to interact meaningfully with the community. This is different from typical community clinic practices. Are there language issues Therapists speaking the language or having trained translators can be important. Asians may have misconceptions and need education about what mental health services actually involve. Finally, traditional Asian cultures also have alternative healing practices that traditional Asians may seek out instead of mental health services. Tai Chi, yoga, and acupuncture are examples.
* In working with Asians, keep in mind within-group differences and the importance of assessing acculturation and racial identity development. Because of the cultural mores against therapy, you may be seeing someone in a significant crisis if a traditional family does bring someone. In the second generation, treatment is often initiated around career, vocational, or academic issues. There are sometimes acculturation conflict undertones to these issues, with the parents wanting one particular career path and the student wanting another.
* Traditional Asians tend to benefit from a structured, educational approach that is practical and has some directive aspects. They will expect some suggestions or recommendations. This approach also must be nurturant and caring. Anticipate a short term, crisis-oriented treatment duration. Especially early on in treatment, it is helpful to frame psychological concepts in medical symptom-related manners rather than psychological ones. For example, instead of talking about depression, you might talk about the client??™s problems sleeping, concentrating, and having the energy to do things.
* m


Individual Ethics Essay
10 July 2012

Being a former military which; is ethically based and supports the deontological theory more than any of the three. Personally, I feel that it was my duty to serve my country. After the readings this week, I believe that I am virtuous person. I believe that a person??™s character tells who they are and their actions are only a small part of who they become in different situations. Ethically my job was to say the enemy is the enemy and we should not care about them or their family. Morally and personally I wanted to get to know the person and their character before making a judgment. Theories are formed to display different beliefs, most of the time people agree with a portion of different beliefs rather than the entire concept. Theories are often used to put characters into perspective or to help people figure out who they are and where they belong. The virtue theory, the utilitarianism theory and deontological theory have similarity and differences. The theories address ethics and morality differently, which makes it difficult to decide which one to go with.
Virtues are what are instilled in us to help us determine good and bad, or wrong or right.?  Morals reflect what we believe to be appropriate in society or our community and values are what we hold close to us and differ from individual to individual.?  Values may be anything from personality or friendships, or emotions.?  All of these attributes help shape the person we are and help make us good individuals in society.?  They also influence our decision making process.?  They are different in terms of how those concepts are instilled in us.?  Ethics can come from our family; values can come from a variety of sources, friends, family and society.?  Morals are provided through society.?  They all shape who we are but through different avenues. Virtue ethics theory stands on the position that ???we become good when we cultivate excellence (virtue) by pursuing the moderate course between excess and defect??? (Boylan, 2009). Ethically people are judged by the action they take because of the consequences that come from those actions. This theory addresses ethics by challenging whether or not we judge a person by their actions rather than their character.
Utilitarianism is a consequentiality theory that focuses on the greater good for all individuals. ? Person??™s morals are right when they want what is best for everyone, or the majority, not just for them. ? Moral good has positive results that end in pleasure and moral wrongs have a negative result and cause pain. Growing up morals taught me to put ourselves last because sacrifice is one of the greatest gifts we have. Ethics also teaches us that we are responsible for our own actions whether they are good or bad. Selfishness is a major part of human nature this theory goes against that. Even though this theory is morally based, it would have to become ethically coordinated to work. This is so because it takes people coming together so there need to be a form of social contract.
Deontology theory is primarily based on an individual??™s moral duty and what an individual “ought” to do. ? The theory states that a person should do what the moral duty dictates no matter what the consequences might be. The theory bases its duties on the nature of human reason or on the nature of human action. It asserts the existence of moral facts and so is a moral realist theory??? (Boylan, 2009). This theory is more ethically bases because it emphasizes a person??™s obligation. Obligation or duty requires a code of ethics, it requires a mutual understanding that someone will always do what they are suppose to without being told. Even though morals causes humans to feel guilty when they do the wrong thing it is not enough for a person to always do what they are suppose to.
The similarity between the virtue theory, the utilitarianism theory and deontological theory is that they all challenge a person??™s moral and ethics. They are also similar because they all require ethics and morals to support these theories. The differences are virtue is both morally and ethically base, utilitarianism is morally based and deontological is more ethnically based.

Boylan, M. (2009). Basic ethics: Basic ethics in action (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.


presented to


on the occasion of


The grass withers
and the ?owers fade,
but the word of our
God stands forever.

new believer??™s
first steps for new christians


Tyndale House Publishers, Inc.
Carol Stream, Illinois

Greg Laurie, General Editor
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Steve Benson, Tyndale House Editor
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Greg Laurie is not only an evangelist, author, and pastor but is the president of Harvest Ministries as well. Harvest
Ministries sponsors Harvest Crusades. These crusades are public evangelistic events intended to present the
message of Jesus Christ to people in a nonreligious environment. Begun in 1990, Harvest Crusades are known for
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would like more information on Harvest Ministries and/or their crusades, write to Harvest Ministries, P.O. Box 4000,
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Welcome!. . . A7
A Note to Readers. . . A55
Introduction to the New Living Translation. . . A57
Holy Bible, New Living Translation Bible Translation Team. . . A67

how you can know God
What Is Missing in Our Lives . . . A11
The Solution: Jesus Christ. . . A13
We Put Jesus on the Cross. . . A15
The Response: Accept God??™s Offer. . . A16
What God Has Done for You. . . A19
Adopted and Assured. . . A20


first steps

off and running

Who Is God. . . A23
Who Is Jesus. . . A24
Who Is the Holy
Spirit. . . A24
Who Is the Devil. . . A25
What Are Angels. . . A26
What Are Demons. . . A27
What Is Heaven. . . A27
What Is Hell. . . A28
Love. . . A29
Forgiveness. . . A29
Purity. . . A30
Perseverance. . . A31
Honesty and Integrity. . . A32
Faith and Works. . . A32
Discernment. . . A33
Peace. . . A33
Joy. . . A34
Accountability. . . A35

Study the Bible. . . A37
Pray. . . A38
Look For and Attend the
Right Church. . . A38
Obey God. . . A39
Resist Temptation. . . A40
Live in God??™s Power. . . A40
Share Your Faith. . . A41
Seek God??™s Will. . . A42
Live as a Disciple. . . A42
Give to God. . . A43
Have Courage in Trials. . . A44

Marriage. . . A45
Children. . . A46
Priorities. . . A47
Prayer Time. . . A48
Conversation. . . A48
Relationships. . . A49
Responsibility. . . A49
Job Performance. . . A50
Attitude toward Self. . . A51

big questions
List of Big Questions . . . A53

Genesis. . .3
Exodus. . .51
Leviticus. . .89
Numbers. . .117
Deuteronomy. . .155
Joshua. . .187
Judges. . .211
Ruth. . .233
1 Samuel. . .237
2 Samuel. . .265
1 Kings. . .289
2 Kings. . .317
1 Chronicles. . .345

2 Chronicles. . .373
Ezra. . .405
Nehemiah. . .415
Esther. . .429
Job. . .437
Psalms. . .465
Proverbs. . .541
Ecclesiastes. . .571
Song of Songs. . .579
Isaiah. . .585
Jeremiah. . .647
Lamentations. . .705
Ezekiel. . .713

Daniel. . .757
Hosea. . .773
Joel. . .783
Amos. . .787
Obadiah. . .795
Jonah. . .797
Micah. . .799
Nahum. . .805
Habakkuk. . .809
Zephaniah. . .813
Haggai. . .817
Zechariah. . .819
Malachi. . .829

Ephesians. . .1063
Philippians. . .1073
Colossians. . .1079
1 Thessalonians. . .1085
2 Thessalonians. . .1091
1 Timothy. . .1095
2 Timothy. . .1101
Titus. . .1105
Philemon. . .1109

Hebrews. . .1111
James. . .1125
1 Peter. . .1131
2 Peter. . .1137
1 John. . .1141
2 John. . .1149
3 John. . .1151
Jude. . .1153
Revelation. . .1155

Matthew. . .837
Mark. . .875
Luke. . .897
John. . .937
Acts. . .965
Romans. . .1003
1 Corinthians. . .1025
2 Corinthians. . .1045
Galatians. . .1057
How to Study the Bible. . .1173
The One Year New Testament Reading Plan. . .1177
52 Great Bible Stories. . .1183
Memory Verses. . .1191
Prophecies about Jesus. . .1199
Glossary of Christian Terms. . .1201


Congratulations! You are holding in your hands the best-selling book
in the history of humanity??”the Bible. It was given to us by God thousands of years ago. Although the Bible has been around for some time,
the wisdom and knowledge contained within are still relevant today. In
fact, everything you need to know about God and life is found in the
pages of this book. It is the ???user??™s manual of life??? that we all have been
searching for.
The Bible does not just teach us about life, though. It also shows us
how to come into a personal relationship with the very God who inspired
this book. This particular Bible contains features that have been specially
designed to help you understand, discover, and deepen the personal relationship that God wants to have with you.
Perhaps you are not yet a believer in Jesus Christ, but you want to know
more about Christianity. You may even want to be a believer, but you just
don??™t know how to become one. In the New Believer??™s Bible, you will find
a section titled ???How You Can Know God??? (page A11). Here, you will
learn how to establish a life-changing relationship with Jesus.
Maybe you have just started in the Christian faith. You are a new
believer. Here you will find out how to lay a good foundation for your
faith and walk with God in the years ahead.
You may even be a believer who is mature in the faith. Here you will be
refreshed and reminded of the essentials of the Christian faith and life.
The New Believer??™s Bible contains four reading tracks: Cornerstones,
First Steps, Off and Running, and Big Questions. Each reading track
(except Big Questions) is composed of two kinds of notes: up-front and
in-text. The up-front notes appear before the Bible text and are made up
of one to two paragraphs and two to eight numbered points that refer
you to Scripture passages and their accompanying in-text notes. (Big
Questions is composed of an up-front list of questions and the page
numbers you can find them on, and the in-text notes that answer those



Reading Track One: Cornerstones: Cornerstones??”
blocks of stone??”were traditionally used to start a building??™s foundation. Likewise, the Cornerstones reading
track helps you to begin to lay a solid foundation for your
faith. Here you will learn about God??™s character, Jesus??™
life, and the Holy Spirit??™s role in the lives of believers. Cornerstones
also contains notes on the essential Christian character traits that are
developed and nurtured by a personal relationship with Jesus Christ.
Some of those traits are love, forgiveness, purity, honesty, wisdom,
peace, and joy.
Reading Track Two: First Steps: The phrase first steps
brings to mind the image of a young child taking his or
her first unassisted steps. Like this young child, new
believers in Christ need to learn how to walk all over
again, so to speak. That is because the Christian life for
most people is a completely new way of living. To help you learn to live
this new life, the First Steps reading track gives you valuable building
blocks for growing in your faith. Here you will discover the importance
and ???how to??? of studying the Bible, praying, finding the right church,
resisting temptation, and seeking God??™s will for your life.
Reading Track Three: Off and Running: ???How does
God??™s Word apply to my everyday life??? This is one of the
most widely asked questions about the Bible today. The
Off and Running reading track answers this question.
Here you will discover how to put your faith into action.
You will see what the Bible has to say about important topics like
marriage, parenting, priorities, conversation, and job performance. By
helping you apply biblical principles to these aspects of your life, Off
and Running takes you to the next level of the Christian life??”living it
day to day.
Reading Track Four: Big Questions: Life often presents
us with difficult situations that cause us to ask hard
questions. For instance, you may wonder how a good God
could let something bad??”like cancer??”happen to you. Or
you may wonder why Jesus Christ is the only way to God.
Aren??™t other religions just as good In the Big Questions reading track,
you will find out what the Bible has to say about tough issues. Everything
from alternative lifestyles to the second coming of Christ is covered here.






At the back of the New Believer??™s Bible you will find several features that
will help you understand the Bible and your faith better. These features

??? How to Study the Bible??”a practical way for you to read through the
Bible and a list of questions to ask yourself as you read.

??? One Year New Testament Reading Plan??”an outline for reading the
New Testatment in five minutes a day in one year.

??? 52 Great Bible Stories??”a list of well-known Bible stories, where you
can find them, and the main lesson you can get out of them.

??? Memory Verses??”a list of key Bible verses to commit to memory.
??? Prophecies about Jesus??”a list of Old Testament passages that contain
prophecies about Jesus, and the New Testament references that record
his fulfillment of those prophecies.

??? Glossary of Christian Terms??”a quick-reference guide to help you
understand the meanings of words like atonement, justification,
redemption, and sanctification.
The New Believer??™s Bible is easy to use. Simply turn to page A23 and
begin reading the ???Who Is God??? up-front note in the ???Cornerstones???
reading track. Look up the Scripture passages and in-text notes referred
to at the end of this note. After you have read all the Scripture passages
and in-text notes for ???Who Is God??? move on to the next up-front note
(???Who Is Jesus???) and begin the process over again.
You can read one up-front note and its Scripture passages and in-text
notes a day. Or, if you prefer, browse through the table of contents and
choose the topic(s) that interests you the most for your daily reading.
Colossians 3:16 says, ???Let the message about Christ, in all its richness,
fill your lives.??? God wants his Word to permeate every area of your life??”
your home, your business, your play time as well as your prayer time.
So open your Bible and your heart, and God will speak to you from these
pages. Don??™t let anything keep you from spending time each day in
God??™s Word.
Greg Laurie

h o w y o u c a n k n o w GOD

what is missing
in our lives
Purpose, meaning, a reason for living??”these are all
things we desire and search for in life. Despite steps
each one of us takes to find purpose and meaning in
life, we still feel empty, unfulfilled. That is because
there is a spiritual emptiness in each of our lives. We
each have a hole in our heart, a spiritual vacuum deep within our soul??”a ???Godshaped blank.??? Possessions won??™t fill this hole, nor will success. Relationships
alone cannot satisfy this emptiness, and morality, in and of itself, falls miserably
short of occupying this space. In fact, even religion cannot fill the void in our
There is only one way to effectively fill that void. This way will not only help us
to have a life that is full and rich on this earth, but??”more important??”will give us
the absolute hope of spending eternity in the presence of God. Before we can
truly appreciate this good news, though, we need to understand the bad news,
which is a serious problem we all have.

t h e p r o b l e m : s i n The Bible clearly identifies our serious problem as
sin. Sin is not just an act but the actual nature of our being. In other words, we
are not sinners because we sin. Rather, we sin because we are sinners! We are
born with a nature to do wrong. King David, an Old Testament Israelite ruler,
wrote, ???For I was born a sinner??”yes, from the moment my mother conceived
me??? (Psalm 51:5). Because we are born sinners, sinning comes to all of us




naturally. That is why it is futile to think that the answer to all of life??™s problems
comes from ???within.??? According to the Bible, the problem is within! Scripture
tells us, ???The human heart is the most deceitful of all things, and desperately
wicked. Who really knows how bad it is??? (Jeremiah 17:9).
We are not basically good??”we are basically sinful. This sinfulness spills out
into everything we do. Every problem we experience in our society today can be
traced back to our refusal to live God??™s way. Clear back to the Garden of Eden,
Adam made his choice, and he suffered the consequences of it, setting the
pattern that all humanity would follow. The Bible explains, ???When Adam sinned,
sin entered the entire world. Adam??™s sin brought death, so death spread to
everyone, for everyone sinned. . . . Yes, Adam??™s one sin brings condemnation for
everyone??? (Romans 5:12, 18).
???That??™s not fair!??? you may protest. Why should we suffer because of what
someone else has done Yet, given the opportunity, each one of us would have
done the same thing as Adam. In fact, not a single day passes that we do not
face the same test that was set before Adam. God has given us the freedom to
choose between two separate paths: the path that leads to life and the path that
leads to death. The Bible says, ???Today, I have given you the choice between life
and death, between blessings and curses. Now I call on heaven and earth to
witness the choice you make. Oh, that you would choose life, so that you and
your descendants might live!??? (Deuteronomy 30:19).
w i t h o u t a l e g t o s t a n d o n Someone may say, ???But I live a
good life. I try to be kind and considerate to others. I live by the Ten Commandments.??? But the truth of the matter is that the Ten Commandments, or the law, as
they are called in the Bible, were not given to make us good but to show us how
bad we are. The Bible tells us, ???No one can ever be made right with God by doing
what the law commands. The law simply shows us how sinful we are??? (Romans
3:20). The purpose of the law is to make us realize how sinful we are. You might
say that God??™s law was given to ???shut our mouths??? and show us that we desperately need his help and forgiveness for our terminal condition as sinners.
Look at the passages below to get a better understanding of the nature and
seriousness of sin.

1. We Have All Missed the Mark (see Romans 3:23, page 1006). Romans
3:23 says, we have all sinned. For those who would claim to be the sole
exception to this eternal truth, verse ten of this chapter plainly says, ???No one
is righteous??”not even one??? (Romans 3:10). Another word for righteous is
good. The word righteous means, ???One who is as he or she ought to be.???
When the Bible says that no one is righteous, or good, it is not so much
referring to behavior but to inner character.




What exactly is ???God??™s glorious standard??? that Romans 3:23 says we have
failed to meet God??™s ???glorious standard??? is absolute perfection. Jesus said,
???But you are to be perfect, even as your Father in heaven is perfect??? (Matthew
5:48). In other words, anyone who is not as good as God is not acceptable
to him.
One definition of sin, derived from the Greek word hamartia, is to
???miss the mark.??? As far as the mark of perfection goes, we miss it by a
mile. Although our sinful nature makes it impossible for us to live up to
God??™s standard, we cannot blame sin on our nature alone. Sin is also a
deliberate act.

2. Sin Is a Deliberate Act (see Ephesians 2:1-3, page 1064). Another word
for sins in Ephesians 2:1 is transgressions or trespasses. This word speaks of
a lapse or deviation from truth. In contrast to simply ???missing the mark,??? this
is a deliberate action. Because sin is a deliberate action, we cannot blame
our sin on our society or our environment or our mental or physical state.
Everyone has chosen to do what was wrong. If we protest this point, ???we are
only fooling ourselves and not living in the truth??? (1 John 1:8).
3. The Ultimate Penalty for Sin Is Death (see Romans 6:23, page 1011).
According to the Bible, we have offended a Holy God. We have not done this
once or twice, but so many times that we are unable to keep count. Romans
6:23 says, ???The wages of sin is death. . . .??? Wages are something you are paid
for work rendered. In other words, you earn your wages. Because we have all
repeatedly sinned, we have earned the penalty of death, which is eteral
torment and punishment in a place called hell.
Amid all this talk about sin and death, there is some good news. God has
given us a way to escape the penalty of our sin. He has made it possible for
us to have a relationship with him and enjoy the hope of eternal life without

the solution:
Jesus Christ
God understood our problem and knew that we could
do nothing about it. Because God loves us, he sent his
own Son, Jesus Christ, to earth to bridge the chasm of
sin that separates us from him.




w h y J e s u s c a n b r i d g e t h e g a p There has never been anyone
like Jesus. For starters, Jesus was not conceived in the womb of his mother
through natural means. Rather, he was supernaturally conceived in the womb of
a young virgin named Mary. Because of his supernatural conception, Jesus, who
is wholly God, also became wholly human.
Though Jesus is God, he chose to lay aside the privileges of his deity to live on
earth as a man. The Bible, describing the sacrifice Christ made in becoming a
man, says that Jesus ???gave up his divine privileges; he took the humble position
of a slave and was born as a human being. When he appeared in human form
he humbled himself in obedience to God and died a criminal??™s death on a cross???
(Philippians 2:7-8). It is extremely important to note that Jesus did not cease to
be God when he came to earth. He simply laid aside his divine privileges and
walked the earth as a man. In doing so, he was personally able to experience the
gamut of human emotions, ranging from happiness to deep sorrow. He felt what
it was like to be tired, cold, and hungry.
Moreover, he came to this earth with a clear objective in mind: to bridge that
gap between us and God.
When the Israelites of the Old Testament sinned, they would have the high
priest go into the Temple and offer an animal sacrifice to God to atone for their
sins. In a symbolic sense, this was a way of putting one??™s sins on the animal,
which stood in the place of the guilty person. The Bible teaches, ???Without the
shedding of blood, there is no forgiveness??? (Hebrews 9:22).
The sacrificial rituals carried out by the Israelites in the Old Testament
foreshadowed what Jesus would do when he came to this earth. He took the
sin of the world upon himself when he hung on the cross so many years ago.
Numerous Old Testament prophecies pointed not only to his birth and life
but also to his death, including the way in which he would die.
Jesus knew from the beginning that he had come expressly to die for the sins
of humanity. He also knew that this sacrifice would be made on a Roman cross.
He began his final journey to the cross of Calvary at a place called Caesarea
Philippi, and he often spoke of his impending death with his disciples. Scripture
records, ???From then on Jesus began to tell his disciples plainly that it was
necessary for him to go to Jerusalem, and that he would suffer many terrible
things at the hands of the elders, the leading priests, and the teachers of
religious law. He would be killed, but on the third day he would be raised from
the dead??? (Matthew 16:21).
He was eventually arrested on false charges after Judas Iscariot, one of his
own disciples, betrayed him. But it was no accident. If humanity was going to
be put in touch with God and have the barrier that separated them removed,
something drastic had to be done. In essence, with one hand Jesus took hold




of a Holy God, and with the other hand he took hold of the sinful human race.
As crude nails were pounded into his hands, he bridged the gap for us!
We must not forget, however, that three days after his crucifixion, Jesus rose
from the dead! If it is true that ???you can??™t keep a good man down,??? then it is even
truer that you can??™t keep the ???God-man??? down

we put Jesus
on the cross
The necessity of the death of Jesus Christ on the
cross shows just how radical our situation was as
fallen people. It??™s been said that you can tell the
depth of a well by how much rope is lowered. When
we look at ???how much rope was lowered??? from heaven,
we realize how grave our situation really was.
For that reason, don??™t blame the people of that day for putting Jesus on the
cross. We are just as guilty as they. In reality, it was not the Roman soldiers
who put him on the cross, nor was it the Jewish leaders: it was our sins that
made it necessary for Jesus to volunteer for this torturous and humiliating
Read the verses and notes below to see exactly what Jesus did for us.

1. The Greatest Demonstration of Love (see Romans 5:6-8, page 1009).
Jesus did not die for us while we were his friends but while we were his
enemies, opposing him by our sinfulness. Yet, in spite of all of this, God
demonstrated his love for us by dying on the cross. In this verse, the apostle
Paul explains that Jesus did not simply die for humanity as a whole but that
he died for us as individuals. Elsewhere, Paul writes, ???[Christ] loved me and
gave himself for me??? (Galatians 2:20).
Whenever you are tempted to doubt God??™s love for you, take a long look at
the cross on which Jesus died. Then realize that, for all practical purposes, it
was not nails that held him to the cross, but love.
2. Forsaken That We Might Be Forgiven (see Luke 23:32-49, page 935).
Many of us have heard this story at some point in our lives. Yet the significance behind this heart-wrenching scene is often missed or misunderstood.
This was not simply some ???good teacher??? being crucified for his beliefs. It
was God in human form who hung on that cross, bridging the gap between
sinful people and a holy God.




Matthew??™s Gospel tells us that when Jesus hung on that cross, he cried out,
???My God, my God, why have you abandoned me??? (Matthew 27:46). Many
Bible scholars believe that those words marked the precise moment at
which God placed the sins of the world upon his Son. The Bible, speaking
of God, says, ???You are of purer eyes than to behold evil, and cannot look on
wickedness??? (Habakkuk 1:13, NKJV). For that reason, the holy Father had to
???turn his face??? and pour out his wrath upon his own Son. On the cross, Jesus
received the wages that were due us. He was not heard that we might be
heard. The ear of God was closed to Jesus for a time that it might never be
closed to us.

3. Christ, the Sole Mediator (see 1 Timothy 2:5-6, page 1096). Why is
there only one mediator who is qualified to bridge the gap between God and
people Haven??™t there been other religious leaders who have claimed to have
the way to God Haven??™t some of them also died as a result of their message
While the answers to these questions may be yes, the truth is that not one
of these other leaders was fully God and fully human. That is why Jesus is
uniquely qualified to deal with sin. Jesus said, ???I am the way, the truth, and
the life. No one can come to the Father except through me??? (John 14:6). Acts
4:12 tells us, ???There is salvation in no one else! God has given no other name
under heaven by which we must be saved.??? And, most important, Jesus Christ
rose from the dead!
Though it is true that you must believe Jesus died on the cross for your sins
in order to receive eternal life and be a true Christian, there is still something
else you must do.

the response:
accept God??™s offer
To know Jesus Christ personally and have your sins
forgiven, you must believe that you are a sinner separated from God and that your only hope is Jesus Christ,
the Son of God, who came and died for your sins. To
stop here, however, would be to stop short of salvation.
There are two things you must now do to enter into a relationship with the
God from whom you have been separated.

1. Turn From Your Sins. As Jesus began his public ministry, his first message
was ???Repent of your sins??? (Mark 1:15). In essence, Jesus was telling the




people to repent??”to acknowledge their sinning, change their minds, and
change the direction of their lives.
Look at it this way. In the past, we have been blinded by our sins, causing
us to run from God. As we repent, we do a ???U-turn??? and start running toward
him. It is not enough just to be sorry for our sins. We must also change our
lifestyle, for the Bible teaches that ???The kind of sorrow God wants us to
experience leads us away from sin??? (2 Corinthians 7:10). In other words, if
you are really sorry for something, it will result in a change in your actions.
The apostle Paul summed up this change succinctly when he quoted Jesus,
who had said that people must ???turn from darkness to light and from the
power of Satan to God. Then they will receive forgiveness for their sins
and be given a place among God??™s people, who are set apart by faith in me???
(Acts 26:18).
You see, there are some things only God can do and some things only you
can do. Only God can remove your sins and give you the gift of eternal life,
but only you can turn from your sins and receive Jesus as your Savior. That
brings up the second thing you must do to respond to God??™s offer.

2. Believe in Jesus Christ and Receive Him into Your Life. Having seen
the enormity of your sin and decided to turn from it, you then must believe
in and receive Jesus Christ as your Lord and Savior. Becoming a Christian,
however, is far more than following a creed or trying to live by certain
standards. Jesus said that you must be ???born again,??? or more literally, ???born
from above??? (John 3:3). This spiritual rebirth happens when we personally
believe in Jesus Christ, receive him by inviting him into our lives, and turn
from our sins. In other words, we ask Jesus to come and take residence in
our lives, making the changes he deems necessary. A person must take this
all-important step in order to become a child of God.
Notice that this offer is yours for the asking, and it is free. You don??™t have
to work for it, trying to clean up your life before you make this life-changing
decision. The Bible says, ???The free gift of God is eternal life through Christ
Jesus our Lord??? (Romans 6:23).
Being a Christian also means having a relationship with the living God. In
Revelation 3:20, Jesus said, ???Look! I stand at the door and knock. If you hear
my voice and open the door, I will come in, and we will share a meal together
as friends.??? To better understand the meaning of this verse, it is important
to understand the culture at the time it was written. Eating together in Bible
times was a long, drawn-out affair. People would not sit on chairs behind
tables in a formal setting as we do, but they would sit on the floor, reclining
on pillows around a low table. The relaxed atmosphere made meals a time
when you would not only satisfy your appetite but also receive a gratifying




serving of enjoyable table conversation. You would share your heart and life
with those who sat beside you.
Consequently, when Jesus says that he will ???share a meal??? with us, it implies
intimacy, closeness, and friendship. He offers this to us, but we must first
???hear him calling??? us.
To hear God calling us, we must know how he speaks. One way in which
God speaks to us is described in the Bible as a ???still, small voice.??? This could
be described in another way as that tug you might have felt on your heart
from the Holy Spirit showing you your need for Jesus. He may even be
speaking to you right now! It is at that point that you must ???open the door.???
Only you can do that. Jesus will not force his way in.

Receiving Jesus Christ into Your Heart. If you are ready to turn from
your sins and believe in Jesus Christ so that you can receive the forgiveness of
sin and the hope of eternal life, then take a moment to bow your head and pray
a prayer like this one right now:
God, I??™m sorry for my sin. I turn from it right now. I thank you for
sending Jesus Christ to die on the cross for my sin.
Jesus, I ask you to come into my heart and life right now. Be my Lord,
Savior, and friend. Help me to follow you all the days of my life as your
Thank you for forgiving and receiving me right now. Thank you that
my sin is forgiven and that I am going to heaven. In Jesus??™ name I pray,

Rededicating Your Life to Jesus Christ. Perhaps you are already a Christian but you have strayed from Jesus Christ. You have been a prodigal son or
daughter. God will forgive you right now if you will return to him. He tells us
in Scripture, ???My wayward children . . . come back to me, and I will heal your
wayward hearts??? (Jeremiah 3:22). If you would like to return to God and
rededicate your life to him right now, you may want to pray something like this:
God, I am sorry for my sin. I am sorry that I have strayed from you.
I ask you to forgive me now as I repent of my sin. I don??™t want to live
like a prodigal any longer.
Renew and revive me as I once again follow you as my God. Thank
you for your forgiveness. In Jesus??™ name I pray, amen.
Whether you prayed to make a first time commitment or a recommitment, you
have made the right decision. God has forgiven and received you if you really
meant it. Know that your relationship with Jesus Christ will bring radical and




dramatic changes in your life. Describing this, the Bible says, ???Anyone who
belongs to Christ has become a new person. The old life is gone; a new life has
begun!??? (2 Corinthians 5:17). Now that is good news! But more importantly, God
has changed your eternal destiny. Instead of fearing an eternal punishment in
a place called hell, you will spend peaceful eternity in his presence in heaven.
Read the next section to see what else God has done for you now that you have
taken this step.

what God has done
for you
What actually happens when Jesus Christ comes into
your life First, he saves you from your sins and the
punishment you deserve as a result of them??”eternity
in hell. This is called salvation, or regeneration, and
has to do with what takes place in your heart: God
gives you new life.
Second, he justifies you. Justification has to do with your standing before God
and includes the complete removal and forgiveness of your sins. Think about it!
When you receive Jesus Christ into your life, you are completely forgiven. God??™s
Word tells us, ???Brothers, listen! We are here to proclaim that through this man
Jesus there is forgiveness for your sins. Everyone who believes in him is declared
right with God [justified]??”something the law of Moses could never do??? (Acts
13:38-39). Speaking of our sins, God says, ???I will never again remember [your]
sins and lawless deeds??? (Hebrews 10:17). What a wonderful promise!
Justification, however, is more than just the forgiveness and removal of the
guilt and condemnation that accompany sin. While God has removed your
sins and forgiven you of them, he has also placed the perfect righteousness
of Jesus Christ ???into your account,??? so to speak. You don??™t have to earn it or
try to achieve it. It is yours as a gracious gift from the God who loves you. To
understand justification more fully, read the following Scripture passages and
notes below.

1. God Promises Us His Gracious Forgiveness (see 1 John 1:9, page
1141). The word confess means ???to say the same thing as another??? or ???to
agree with.??? To confess means that we are agreeing with God about our sin.
We are seeing it as he does. We know that God hates sin. Therefore, to truly




confess our sin means that we essentially feel the same way God feels about
what we have done. After committing that sin, we will be determined to put
it out of our lives and never do it again. That is true confession in the biblical
sense. The reason many believers are not experiencing the forgiveness and
joy they desire is that they have not yet truly confessed! Once we have met
God??™s conditions, however, we will know his gracious forgiveness. We may
not ???feel??? forgiven, but we are. We have his word on it.

2. God Has Balanced Our Moral and Spiritual Budget (see Romans
5:1-2, page 1009). When God makes us right in his sight, he does so by
placing all of the righteousness of Christ to our credit. This balances the
moral and spiritual budget for us. We now have sufficient ???capital of
character??? to get on with the business of living.
Up to this point, salvation has been God??™s responsibility. From this point on, it
continues to be his responsibility except that we are responsible for the wise investment of our ???capital of character?????”that is, we are responsible for living as
God desires us to. It is as if your checking account were empty, but then someone made a $100,000 deposit. What you do with that money is up to you.
3. God Calls Us His Children (see Luke 15:11-32, page 922). This incredible
story illustrates what happens when a person turns from sin and returns to
God. First, notice that the father in the story did not give this prodigal son
what he deserved??”banishment. In the same way, we do not receive from
God what we deserve??”punishment for sin. Second, the young man was given
what he did not deserve??”the rights and privileges offull sonship. Likewise,
although we are not worthy to be called children of God, he calls us sons and
daughters. In summary, he doesn??™t give us what we deserve (judgment). He
gives us what we don??™t deserve (forgiveness and justification).
Speaking of sons and daughters, read on to see how God has adopted you into
his family.

adopted and assured
We have looked at what happens when we are
regenerated (when Christ comes into our lives) and
when we are justified (when God forgives our sin and
puts his righteousness in its place). Now let us look at
another incredible thing God has done for us. He has
adopted us into his family as his children!
Adoption means ???to be given the rights of a son.??? In




essence, you have been given the full rights of sonship in the family of God as
though you were born that way. The story of the Prodigal Son illustrates this
(Luke 15:11-32). The wayward son thought that after leaving home, he would
no longer be considered a son but would instead be treated as a hired servant.
Much to his surprise, when he made the long journey home, his father welcomed him and smothered him with kisses. He then gave orders to bring out
the best robe and to put a ring on his finger, signifying full rights as a son. That
is exactly what God has done for you! Take some time now to examine three
Scripture passages that assure you of your adoption into God??™s family.

1. God Disciplines His Children (see Hebrews 12:5-9, page 1122).
Recognizing you are now a child of God is not some distant hope but a
present reality. One of the ways God will remind you of this is by correcting
you and bringing you back into line like a loving father when you stray away
from him.
Before we were believers, we may have felt no sense of guilt for certain
things we did or did not do. But now that we are Christians, God??™s Holy Spirit
shows us the way to live, which includes correcting us. He does this not
because he hates us but because he loves us as his own dear children.
Understanding this truth should help us in the way we behave.
2. You Have an Approachable Father (see Galatians 4:6, page 1060). The
Aramaic word translated ???dear Father??? is abba, which is a word of affection
that a young child would use endearingly toward his or her father. A western
equivalent of that phrase would be ???papa??? or ???daddy.??? God does not want to
be viewed as some distant, uninterested father but as a loving, approachable
father to whom you can turn at any time because you are his child.
3. His Promises Are Not Based upon Your Feelings (see 1 John 5:11-13,
page 1147). There will be times as a Christian when you may not ???feel??? God??™s
presence. You may even be tempted to doubt that he has come into your life.
But 1 John 5:13 does not say, ???I write this to you who believe in the Son of
God so that you may feel you have eternal life.??? This is because feelings come
and go. They fluctuate. Nor does the Bible say, ???I write this so that you may
hope??”if God is in a really good mood??”that you have eternal life.??? It says, ???so
that you may know. . . .??? Eternal life is yours! Stand on God??™s promise to you.
You are forgiven, justified, adopted into his family, and assured of salvation.
Now that is reason to rejoice!
To find out more about God, turn to ???Who Is God??? on the next page in the
Cornerstones section.

foundational truths of the faith

who is God
Thousands of years ago, Pharaoh, the Egyptian ruler, posed a question people
are still asking today: ???Who is the LORD that I should listen to him??? That??™s a
good question, but it is not an easy subject to tackle. It is difficult for our limited
minds to grasp the limitless, eternal God. It has been said, ???If God were small
enough for your minds, he wouldn??™t be big enough for your needs.??? For that
reason, don??™t be exasperated if you can??™t fully understand who God is or why he
does certain things. One day, Scripture promises, everything about God and his
character will be made perfectly clear to us (1 Corinthians 13:12). But until
then, we will find everything we need to know about him in his Word. Look up
the following notes and passages to find out who God is.

1. God Is All-Knowing, Ever-Present, and All-Powerful. The Creator of
the Universe knows every intimate detail of his creation (see Psalm 139:1-24,
page 536).
2. God Is Holy. God??™s incomparable holiness merits our worship (see Isaiah
6:1-8, page 592).
3. God Is Loving and Just. God??™s justice is tempered by his love (see 2 Peter
3:3-9, page 1138).
4. God Is Personal. This characteristic of God sets him apart from the
so-called ???gods??? of other religions (see Acts 17:22-33, page 992).
5. God Is in Control. It is important to remember that God is still in control,
even if things around us seem to be in chaos (see Habakkuk 3:2-19, page
6. The God of the Bible Is the One True God. While some insist on the
existence of many gods, only the God of the Bible is the true, living God,
worthy of our devotion (see Isaiah 45:9-23, page 624).




who is Jesus
Throughout history many people have attempted to answer this question. Some
have done so accurately, but many have not. Our best source for answering this
question is??”once again??”God??™s own Word. The Bible presents us with some
inescapable truths about Jesus that demand a response. Anyone who seriously
studies Scripture to learn more about Jesus must answer two probing questions:
(1) What do you think of Jesus Christ and (2) Who is he The writer C. S. Lewis
made this observation: ???You must make your choice. Either this man was, and is,
the Son of God: or else a madman or something worse. You can shut Him up for
a fool, you can spit at Him and kill Him as a demon; or you can fall at His feet
and call Him Lord and God. But let us not come with any patronising nonsense
about His being a great human teacher. He has not left that open to us. He did
not intend to??? (Mere Christianity, rev. ed. [New York: Macmillan, 1952], 41).
Jesus was not just a good man. He was??”and is??”the God-man. Let??™s examine
what the Bible has to say about Jesus.

1. Jesus Is Human. Jesus became our supreme example as God in human
form (see Philippians 2:5-11, page 1074).
2. Jesus Is Divine. Even though Jesus became human, he still remained God
(see Colossians 1:15-20, page 1080).
3. Jesus Had a Specific Mission to Accomplish. Jesus came to save
humankind from sin (see Luke 4:16-21, page 904).
4. Jesus Made the Ultimate Sacrifice. Jesus endured tremendous pain so
that we could enjoy eternity with him (see Isaiah 53:1-12, page 632).
5. Jesus Has Great Power to Transform People. Jesus can change the
most unlikely person into one of the most powerful witnesses on his behalf
(see Acts 4:1-13, page 970).
6. Jesus Has an Eternal Dominion. Jesus??™ Kingdom extends beyond the
boundaries of space and time (see Revelation 1:4-8, page 1156).

who is the Holy Spirit
The Holy Spirit is the most mysterious member of the Trinity, which includes
God the Father, God the Son (Jesus Christ), and God the Spirit (or the Holy Spirit).
Many struggle with the idea of God being three persons, yet one. Quite honestly,
we will never fully grasp the concept this side of heaven.
Some, however, have wrongly thought of the Holy Spirit as more of an ???it???
than a ???he.??? That is probably due in part to biblical descriptions of him as being
like the wind or coming upon Jesus in the form of a dove, among other




Yet these descriptions must be balanced with the descriptions ofthe other
members of the Trinity. For instance, Jesus referred to himself as ???the bread of
life??? and ???the good shepherd.??? In the same way, God the Father is referred to as
???a refuge??? and ???a consuming fire.??? Does this mean that Jesus is a loaf of bread or
a sheep farmer, or that the Father is a pile of rocks or a blast furnace Of course
not! These are simply metaphors used in Scripture to help communicate God??™s
character. Likewise, the unique descriptions attributed to the Holy Spirit do
not imply that the Holy Spirit is merely some ???force??? or ???power.??? Jesus said this
about the Holy Spirit: ???When the Spirit of truth comes, he will guide you into
all truth. . . . He will tell you about the future??? (John 16:13). Note the use of the
pronoun he. The Holy Spirit has a distinct personality, and he also has specific
work that he wants to do in our lives as followers of Jesus Christ. Explore what
the Bible says about him.

1. Whom the Holy Spirit Helps. The Holy Spirit strengthens and empowers
followers of Christ (see Acts 2:1-41, page 968).
2. How the Holy Spirit Works with the Father and the Son. The Holy
Spirit works alongside God the Father and Jesus, God??™s Son, to make our lives
pleasing to God (see 1 Peter 1:2, page 1132).
3. Why God Gives Us the Holy Spirit. The Holy Spirit??™s presence in our
lives is God??™s mark of ownership (see Ephesians 1:13-14, page 1064).
4. How the Holy Spirit Works in Our Lives. The Holy Spirit draws us to
Christ, enters our lives at conversion, and empowers us as we allow him to
work in our lives (see John 14:15-17, page 956).
5. When the Holy Spirit Can Be Sinned Against. There are six specific
ways we can sin against the Holy Spirit (see Acts 5:1-10, page 974).
6. Why Christians Need the Holy Spirit. Living the Christian life is
impossible without the Holy Spirit??™s help (see Galatians 5:16-26, page 1058).

who is the devil
What is the devil like Does he really look like the red-suited, pitchfork-holding
cartoon caricature seated on a throne in hell Or does he roam through the
earth disguised as an angel of light
Unfortunately, far too many people do not have an accurate view of who the
devil is. Many underestimate him and his prowess, even going so far as to doubt
his very existence. Someone once asked the great evangelist Charles Finney,
???Mr. Finney, do you believe in a literal devil??? Finney replied, ???You try opposing
him for a while, and you see if he??™s literal or not.??? You will find out how literal the
devil is the moment you make a commitment to Jesus Christ.




The Bible clearly shows us just how active and conniving the devil really is.
At the same time, Scripture also lets us know about the devil??™s limitations and
ultimate demise. The more we understand the tactics of this intelligent spirit
being, the better equipped we will be to ward off his attacks. Below are some key
passages of Scripture that answer some of the most commonly asked questions
about the devil??”who is also referred to as Satan.

1. Where Did Satan Come From Satan??™s pride led to his fall from heaven
(see Ezekiel 28:12-19, page 736).
2. What Are Satan??™s Abilities Satan does have the power and access to do
certain things in this world (see 2 Corinthians 4:3-4, page 1048).
3. What Are Satan??™s Limitations While we should not underestimate
Satan??™s power, we should realize that it is limited (see Job 1:1??“2:10, page
4. How Does Satan Attack People Satan masterfully uses manipulation
and distortion to deceive people (see Genesis 3:1-7, page 6).
5. Who Can Thwart Satan??™s Agenda Those who lay down their lives for
Christ will defeat this evil foe (see Revelation 12:10-12, page 1164).

what are angels
According to recent surveys, most people believe in the existence of angels. A
glut of books on the subject fills bookstore shelves. Still, our only reliable source
on angels and their activity is the Bible. Just who are these mysterious creatures
What do they look like Do they wear long, flowing robes and have large birdlike
wings And what is their purpose
You might call angels ???God??™s secret agents.??? They basically work undercover.
Most of the time these secret agents remain invisible??”except on those special
occasions when God allows people to see them. No doubt God realized that if
we were allowed to see them all of the time, they would become an object of our
worship, which is to be reserved for God alone. Let??™s take some time to see what
the Bible has to say about angels and their role in this world.

1. Why Did God Create Angels God created angels as unique spiritual
beings who worship Christ and care for his followers (see Hebrews 1:4-14,
page 1112).
2. What Do Angels Do in the Life of a Christian God has ordered the
angels to protect his followers and keep them from harm (see Psalm 91:1-16,
page 512).




3. How Are Angels Involved in Our Prayers Our prayers can trigger
spiritual warfare (see Daniel 10:1??“11:1, page 768).
4. What Role Will Angels Play in the End Times Angels will play a
strategic role in spreading the everlasting gospel (see Revelation 14:6-7,
page 1166).

what are demons
Just as there are angels who look out for your welfare, there are angels who are
bent upon your destruction. The Bible teaches that when Satan fell from heaven,
he took one-third of the angels with him (Revelation 12:4). Although we do not
know their exact number, Scripture tells us there are multitudes (Luke 2:13) and
legions (Matthew 26:53) of angels. So Satan has a sizable, highly organized force
under his control. These fallen angels, also known as demons, help Satan
accomplish his purpose, which, in the words of Christ, is to steal, kill, and
destroy. While the Bible does not give us specific details as to how demons work,
we can be confident that everything we need to know about them is found in
Scripture. We do not need to look elsewhere for insights into the spiritual world.
See what God??™s Word has to say about these evil agents.

1. What Do Demons Believe Strange as it may seem, demons acknowledge
that there is only one God (see James 2:19, page 1130).
2. Can Demons Personally Harm You Those people who have a true
relationship with Christ cannot be overcome by demons; those who do not
are ???fair game??? for these servants of Satan (see Acts 19:13-20, page 994).
3. What Makes Demons Powerless The name of Jesus used by the
followers of Jesus makes the demons tremble (see Luke 10:1-20, page 914).

what is heaven
The Bible gives us wonderful, vivid descriptions of heaven. From Scripture we
know that heaven??™s streets are made of gold, and that pain, fear, and sorrow are
not present there. But even with all of this detail, we still fall short of understanding ???the big picture.??? That is because it is difficult for us to grasp the
absolute perfection and glory of heaven.
All splendor aside, though, what truly makes heaven spectacular is that we
will be forever in God??™s presence. As the psalmist so poignantly expressed,
???You will show me the way of life, granting me the joy of your presence and the
pleasures of living with you forever??? (Psalm 16:11).




While we may not be able to have all of our questions about heaven answered
here on earth, the Bible does answer some of our most probing questions.

1. Who Will Enter Heaven Heaven is a place for those who have received
Jesus Christ as Lord (see John 14:2-6, page 954).
2. When Does a Christian Enter Heaven When we take our last breath
on earth, we will take our first breath in heaven (see 2 Corinthians 5:6-9,
page 1050).
3. Will We Recognize People in Heaven While our heavenly bodies may
resemble our earthly bodies, we will in some ways be like the angels (see
Matthew 22:23-33, page 866).
4. What Will Life in Heaven Be Like Our lives in heaven will no longer
be consumed by the cares of this life, but we will be filled with joy being
in the presence of our heavenly Father (see Revelation 7:13-17,
page 1160).

what is hell
According to the Bible, you have two options to choose from when it comes to
deciding where you will spend your life after death. One option is heaven. The
other is hell. Interestingly enough, while there seems to be an increased belief
in a place called hell, most people don??™t believe they are headed there. Instead,
they believe that hell is reserved for only the most hardened of criminals and
other ???evil??? elements of our society. But God??™s Word judges people by a different
set of criteria. You are not sent to hell for being a bad person any more than you
are sent to heaven for being a good person. We all deserve to spend eternity in
hell (Romans 3:22-23).
While God clearly says that those who reject the salvation offered through his
Son, Jesus Christ, will spend eternity in this place of torment, he repeatedly gives
each person ample opportunity to choose life??”abundant life on earth and
eternal life in heaven (2 Peter 3:9). If you haven??™t made that choice yet, or if you
have decided and want a better understanding of what your nonbelieving friends
will have to face, consider these facts about hell from the pages of Scripture.

1. What Is Hell Like Hell is a place of unending, isolated torment (see Luke
16:19-31, page 924).
2. Who Will Go to Hell Those whose names do not appear in the Book of Life
are destined to everlasting punishment (see Revelation 20:11-15, page 1170).
3. What Is the Worst Punishment of Hell Hell??™s worst punishment is
everlasting separation from God??™s presence (see 2 Thessalonians 1:7-10,
page 1092).

first steps
what to do after you
have accepted Christ

study the Bible
You might say that the Bible is the ???user??™s manual of life??? we have all been
searching for. Everything we need to know about God and living a life that
pleases him is found in its pages.
Tragically, some of us go through life without so much as picking up this
amazing book, whose words were inspired by God. Yet success or failure in the
Christian life is determined by how much of the Bible we get into our hearts
and minds and how obedient we are to the principles and teachings found
within it. Just as we need to continually breathe oxygen to survive, we need to
regularly study the Bible to grow and flourish spiritually. Here are some
important reasons why we need to spend time in this life-changing book.

1. Studying the Bible Is Necessary for Our Spiritual Growth. The Bible
performs three functions to help us mature spiritually (see 2 Timothy
3:16-17, page 1103).
2. Studying the Bible Keeps Us Spiritually Strong. The more we get into
this book and apply its teachings, the more we will be able to stand our
ground in the storms and trials of life (see Psalm 119:9-18, page 527).
3. Studying the Bible Makes Scripture a Central Part of Our Lives.
God desires that we make the Bible an integral part of our lives (see
Deuteronomy 11:18-20, page 167).
4. Studying the Bible Helps Us Apply Its Truth to Our Lives. We will
notice positive changes in our lives as we apply what we read in Scripture (see
Psalm 1:1-3, page 469).




The idea of talking to God can be intimidating. But it doesn??™t have to be. In
fact, prayer can be a wonderful experience if we know how to do it God??™s way.
Fortunately, we have God??™s Word to teach us how to pray. The Bible instructs us to
pray at all times, in any posture, in any place, for any reason. In addition, it does
not matter whether you pray in King James English or the most contemporary
jargon. God only desires that you pray from a pure and sincere heart.
The disciples observed the profound effect prayer had in Jesus??™ life and
ministry. They witnessed how Jesus would often go off by himself to spend
time in prayer with his heavenly Father. They saw the power, peace, and
tranquility that emanated from his life, giving him the ability to stay calm in
troubled circumstances. Jesus??™ prayer life so impressed these men that they
asked him to teach them to pray (Luke 11:1-13). Certainly if the perfect Son of
God often took time to pray during his life here on earth, how much more do
we, mere men and women, need to pray
Because prayer is an essential ingredient to walking with Jesus Christ, we need
to examine its elements found in God??™s Word.

1. Prayer Was Modeled for Us by Christ. Jesus took the time to show his
followers how to pray (see Matthew 6:5-15, page 843).
2. Prayer Is Not a Solitary Experience. God has given us his Holy Spirit
to aid us in prayer, even when we do not know what to pray (see Romans
8:26-27, page 1011).
3. Prayer Allows Us to Voice Our Requests to God. Prayer is God??™s
appointed way for us to relate our concerns and present our needs to him
(see James 4:2-3, page 1127).
4. Prayer Enables Us to Seek Forgiveness. When we pray sincerely for
forgiveness, God will hear our prayers and restore us (see Hosea 14:1-7,
page 781).
5. Prayer Helps Us Overcome Worry. In the midst of troubles, we can
receive God??™s peace through prayer (see Philippians 4:6-7, page 1077).
6. Prayer Increases Our Spiritual Knowledge and Maturity. God will
give us greater spiritual understanding through prayer (see Jeremiah 33:3, page

look for and attend the right church
One of the essential building blocks of spiritual growth is fellowship with other
believers by becoming part of a local church. The church (meaning the entire
body of Christians) is not really an organization so much as an organism. It




thrives by keeping its members spiritually active and well-fed. The church
provides you with spiritual instruction from God??™s Word, allows you to worship
God with other believers, enables you to use your God-given gifts and abilities
as God intended, and makes you accountable to spiritual leadership.
Some people think they can get enough spiritual input from Christian
television, radio programs, and books. While those things do have value, nothing
can replace the need to become an active member of a church. Think about it??”
if joining in fellowship with other believers was not important, why did Jesus
establish the church (See Matthew 16:18, page 858.) The Bible has plenty to
say about the characteristics of a healthy, vibrant church and the necessity of
Christian fellowship. There are four helpful insights from God??™s Word on
looking for and attending the right church.

1. What to Look for in a Church. You should look for a church that has the
qualities and characteristics of the first-century church (see Acts 2:42, 44-47,
page 969).
2. Why We Need Fellowship with Other Believers. Fellowship with
other Christians sharpens our spiritual discernment and prepares us for
Christ??™s return (see Hebrews 10:25, page 1119).
3. Why the Church Needs You. Not only will you benefit from the church,
but the church will benefit from you and your God-given abilities (see
Ephesians 4:11-16, page 1065).
4. You Have a Place in the Church. God has given each one of us a unique
role to play in our place of fellowship (see 1 Corinthians 12:12-27, page 1041).

obey God
The real evidence of a true Christian is a changed life. The great British
preacher Charles Haddon Spurgeon once said, ???Of what value is the grace I
profess to receive if it does not dramatically change the way that I live If it
doesn??™t change the way that I live, it will never change my eternal destiny.???
A changed life begins with obedience to God. This means that you will have
to stop doing certain things and start doing others. While God begins to
change your heart and desires once you have surrendered your life to him, he
still gives you the freedom to decide just how much of your life you will let
him control. But know this: Whatever you give up to follow Jesus Christ will
pale in comparison to what he will give you in return. For example, when you
give up sinful behaviors for God, he will replace your sin with forgiveness and
a clear conscience. With this incentive for obedience, look at six specific ways
the Bible instructs us to obey God.




1. Recognize That You Are a New Creation. When you understand what
God has done in your life, obedience becomes more of a desire than a mere
duty (see 2 Corinthians 5:14-17, page 1051).
2. Follow God Wholeheartedly. When you follow God completely, you will
finish the race of life well (see Joshua 14:6-14, page 201).
3. Offer God More than Lip Service. God looks at your heart more than
your religious actions (see 1 Samuel 15:1-23, page 249).
4. Live in God??™s Love. Discover the secret of true and lasting joy (see John
15:9-11, page 957).
5. Put On God??™s Armor. Obedience prepares you for the battles of life (see
Romans 13:11-14, page 1019).
6. Let God Occupy Your Thoughts. Your thoughts will affect your actions
(see Colossians 3:2-4, page 1081).

resist temptation
Now that you are a follower of Jesus Christ, Satan is going to try to draw you away
by tempting you to disobey God??™s Word. It is not a sin to be tempted??”even Jesus
was tempted (see Luke 4:1-13, pages 902-903). We sin when we give in to that
temptation. The good news is that God will never let a temptation become so
strong that we can??™t handle it. In addition, he has given us specific ways to handle
temptation. Here are four things to remember when dealing with temptation.

1. Realize Who Is Tempting You. Satan is the mastermind behind all of
your temptations (see Ephesians 6:10-12, page 1069).
2. Resist the Devil. The Bible says that if you resist Satan??™s enticements, he
will flee from you (see James 4:7-8, page 1129).
3. Rejoice Because Victory Is Yours in Christ Jesus. God promises that
he will always provide a way of escape (see 1 Corinthians 10:13, page 1037).
4. Remember That Others Have Successfully Dealt with Temptation.
Joseph??™s example shows us one of the best ways to resist tem


My individual ethic motivation and the reason I am the way I am. First I would like to view what are ethics Ethics, at the end of the day, are personal to each of us as individuals. Whether we are following the code of ethics at work or not. I would like to give you my top rules for sustaining individual ethics
I always listen to my mother and my grandmother, because they understand what is best for me in certain situations, even when I cannot seem to understand their reasons. I always try to obey because the Bible commands for all children to obey their parents. I was always taught that if you do not, your life would be cut short.
I continue to try and be true to myself and what I believe in. That is how I stay authentic. I believe that each person is their own individual. Whether people like you or not, I believe you should always be true to yourself. I have notice that there are many who attempts to duplicate who I am, but I am often imitated, but never duplicated. I believe that everyone should be so authentic that no one should ever be exactly like you. It is important and vital for you to be authentic.
I continue to speak the truth. I do not believe that lies travel a long way and you always have to cover that lie with another one. I have always been taught that the truth shall set you free. I believe that honesty goes a long way and people will continue to believe in you and what you say.
I always try to do what is right and not what is expedient. It usually takes longer to get the results that I want, but I believe that the result is more rewarding and genuine. My grandmother has always taught me that good things come to those that wait. I know that this is an English phrase extolling the desirable quality of patience. It has been second-hand as the starting point for several pieces of popular civilization.
I have always learned that if it doesn??™t feel right, it??™s probably wrong. The gut is a feeling that is associated to the heart and brain ??” goes with it. People often have to think about if what they are doing is right. But you can always depend on your feelings to help guide you in the right direction. I believe this is a great part of me learning ethics throughout the years of growing. I believe that we should do the right thing. This is an important lesson that I feel we all should teach to our children as they grow and develop.
I always try to give others a chance. If I had my turn, I move on and let someone else have their turn. When I speak I believe that it is should be valuable. I have learned that people can sometimes listen and take advise that you give. So when I speak I always try to make it easy for everyone to understand.
Even though things happen, I get over it. I have learned that if you have been aggrieved or imagine you have, time heals all wounds. I believe that there are things that you go through that will hurt but with time, it all gets a little better. I think that healing is the best thing that people need in this life, especially with all the things going on in the world. I feel that this world needs a lot of healing and people need to open themselves and allow themselves to heal from past hurt. I believe that everything will heal in time.
I have learned to stay grounded. For those that do not know what it means to stay grounded and to always lead my example, let me share this with you. If you want to lead by example, it means to demonstrate behavior rather than just saying something should be done. For example, if someone in the hallway at school drops their books, to lead by example would be to help pick up the books for that person. Then others will see what you are doing and the next time they see someone in the hall that has dropped their books they will pick help.


Christopher Columbus (1451-1506)?Christopher Columbus was born between August 25 and October 31, 1451, in Genoa, Italy. He died on May 20, 1506, in Valladolid, Spain.

The Far East?The Far East is made up of the countries of India, China, and Japan. It is also known as the Indies. The Europeans traded with the Far East for spices, jewels, gold, ivory, pearls, and silk. They relied on a single trade route over land from Europe to the Far East.
This trade route was established by Marco Polo between 1271 and 1274. The route was thousands of miles long and took months to travel. The route was dangerous because robbers would loot the traders of their goods.
In 1435, the Ottoman Empire blocked the European trade route to the Far East. If the Europeans wanted to continue trading with the Far East, they would have to find another route.

New Trade Route?The Portuguese tried to find a new route to the Far East by sailing south around the African continent. In 1488, Bartholomew Diaz discovered Africas southern tip. It is called the Cape of Good Hope. In 1499, Vasco da Gama continued around the Cape of Good Hope and discovered a sea route to the Far East.

Another Idea for a New Trade Route?Before da Gama found this trade route to the Far East, Christopher Columbus had another idea for a trade route. Columbus believed the earth was round, and therefore, he could reach the East by sailing west. To do so, he would have to cross the Ocean Sea. Today, the Ocean Sea is known as the Atlantic Ocean.

Other people also believed the earth was round. However, they did not think a boat could reach the East by sailing west because they thought the Ocean Sea could not be crossed. At this time, there were several myths about the Ocean Sea. They include:
? The ships would catch on fire because the water reached boiling temperatures.

? The ships would be destroyed by the monsters living in the Ocean Sea.

? The Ocean Sea was too big to sail across.

? If a ship sailed west, it would sail downhill. Therefore, the ship could not return because it would have to sail uphill.
In 1492, Christopher successfully sailed across the Ocean Sea and dispelled all myths about it. However, he did not find a new trade route to the East. Instead, he discovered the New World.

The New World?Before Christophers voyage in 1492, the Europeans thought the world consisted only of Europe, Africa, Asia, and the Ocean Sea. They did not know the continents of North and South America existed.
After 1492, Europeans were exposed to other parts of the world. They called this the New World because these lands were new to them.

The Age of Discovery?Christophers sea explorations led to the Age of Discovery. His discoveries encouraged other explorers to follow and sail to unknown territories. Other discoveries include:
? In 1499, Vasco da Gama discovered a sea route from Europe to Asia by sailing around the tip of Africa.?? ? In 1513, Vasco Nunez de Balboa crossed Central America and discovered the Pacific Ocean.? ? In 1513, Juan Ponce de Leon discovered Florida.?? ? In 1520, Ferdinand Magellan sailed around the southern tip of South America to the Pacific Ocean. ? ? In 1522, one of Ferdinand Magellans ships was the first ship to sail around the world.



Globalization is a process created by international trade and investment and supported by information technology that results in the cooperation and integration of the people, companies and governments. Because globalization affects the environment, social structures, political systems, economic development, and human physical security and welfare, businesses must define ethical standards and interpret them according to the different countries. Supporters of globalization say it permits less advantaged countries to develop their economies and raise the standards of living, while detractors contend that the international free market benefits multinational corporations at the expense of host countries.
1. Cultural Ethical Standards
o Conduct perceived as ethical in one country may be perceived as unethical in another.

Conduct perceived as ethical in one country may be perceived as unethical in another. The question raised is whether to adapt to the emerging marketplace or maintain strict adherence to corporate standards set by the initiating corporation. Gift giving in certain parts of Asia is seen as a natural part of the business process, but may violate a corporate code in the United States. Maintaining the standard set in the United States may inhibit the business process in another part of the world.

2. Environmental Concerns
o Green technology requires an initial investment but reaps benefits over time.

Critics of globalization contend that the environment is negatively impacted by locating polluting industries in countries where there are fewer environmental regulations or where the regulations are less likely to be enforced. Reducing the environmental footprint while maximizing corporate profit and enhancing profitability for the emerging market is the desired outcome of the global marketplace. Finding efficiencies of production and reducing the infrastructure of the organization often results in reduced use of fuel. Embracing “green” technologies requires an initial investment, but over time may result in enhanced profitability. FedEx, for example, is studying ways of making this possible.

3. Digital Technology
o Communication in cyberspace and on the Internet now takes place in near real-time.

The challenge of digital technology is to maintain and increase productivity without leaving a significant portion of the population out of the process. Communication in cyberspace and on the Internet now takes place in near real-time and is standard business practice in First World countries, but occurs with much less frequency in the Third World. The availability or unavailability of technology — or even electricity — adds to the complexity of globalization. The issue is to use emerging technologies without leaving a significant portion of the worlds population behind.

4. International Trade Organizations
o Self-regulation of business must be coupled with international agreements.

Self-regulation of business must be coupled with international agreements and regulations to effectively address the concerns of ethical globalization. The World Bank, the World Trade Organization (WTO), the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the United Nations (UN) address issues of globalization. The World Bank loans money to emerging nations, the WTO regulates trade and settles disputes and the IMF watches over the global financial system. The UN and United States oversee other issues regarding globalization, and the U.S. has initiated regulations and tarrif agreements such as the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and the Dominican Republic -Central American Free Trade Agreement (DR-CAFTA). The end goal is the ethical behavior of multinational corporations and emerging nations as globalization becomes a permanent reality


The year 2002 will be memorialized in MBA programs around the country as a year of corporate mendacity and corruption. Discussed in class after class will be the shocking market meltdowns of one-time high flyers like WorldCom, Enron, Global Crossing, and Adelphia. Also discussed will be the regulatory fines hitting Wall Street, for allegedly misleading investors, that could total $1 billion by the time it??™s over.

Not only will the financial and technical management lapses be discussed, but all these cases, along with the famous case of IMClone and Martha Stewart, will be centerpieces of business ethics classes as well. What students learn from these cases will inform the next generation of business leaders about the right and wrong of commercial activity.
What ethical lessons will the students take from these class discussions They will certainly understand the details of each case, and the range of opinion out there on how each case was treated by the press and by regulators. In fact, such case studies are the bread and butter of all business ethics classes. The case is presented, the ethical issues identified, and discussion ensues about corporate responsibility to stockholders and the community at large.
The conclusions produced by this mode of pedagogy will likely be murky. Yes, the students will be told that corporations must manage assets professionally and transparently, be fair to employees, and be environmentally conscious. Who doesn??™t agree that corporations must not pursue profit at the expense of justice and must not attempt to defy regulations designed to protect the public Corporations must be as attentive to the needs of the community as they are to the demands of the bottom line.
There is nothing inherently objectionable about this familiar litany, but it is lacking in an important respect: it deals with the ethics of a corporation as if they were a special mode of behavior rather than an extension of personal and individual ethics. In fact, the subject of individual ethics is so dicey in these days of relativism and positivism that the subject of personal morality is not likely to come up at all in discussions of business ethics.
The days leading up to Christmas??”the main commercial period of the year??”are also a season imbued with religious significance, an apt time of renewed fidelity to first principles and of how to conduct one??™s life both privately and publicly. How do the above vague postulates help in the practical conduct of business life What grounding do they have in a fixed standard of right and wrong
Most discussions of business ethics these days are replete with political overtones. It is true that profits should not be pursued at the expense of justice, but what does that mean in practice Does it mean that a corporation must make donations to guilt-inducing groups that favor political manipulation of business Do the demands of justice require that the corporation employ a portion of its assets in pursuit of politically correct outcomes Some say so.
Consider the work of the Aspen Institute and the World Resources Institute, with their report ???Beyond Grey Pinstripes.??? It is an effort to ensure that MBA programs incorporate social and environmental concerns in their ethics classes. The goal is to make ???social impact management??? central to ethics classes. Business schools can do this by ???bringing consumer activists, institutional shareholders, socially responsible investors, and industry and NGO representatives into the classroom,??? and ???require students to make decisions in scenarios where the population is impoverished,??? as well as ???conduct research on different cultures and customs.???
Aside from the fact that bringing someone from Ralph Nader??™s organization in to lecture is not likely to do much for the personal ethics of managers, the language of such programs show that they are not really about ethics and morality at all. They are not virtue-based programs, and thus will not prevent fraud, deception, or any other kind of dishonesty in business. Instead, this language is all about politics of a certain bent, the kind that favors curbing free enterprise through regulation and pressure-group agitation.
To confuse this political agenda with authentic ethics is not only an intellectual error. For students, it breeds a kind of cynicism that one??™s moral obligations concerning business can be discharged by adhering, or pretending to adhere to, a certain brand of left-leaning politics. In business life, we are led to believe, one??™s moral obligations can be discharged by donating to the correct causes. Indeed, the World Resources Institute/Aspen Institute effort itself is supported by large corporations such as American Express, AT&T, Citigroup, Prudential, and Alcoa, among others.
Students and the general public have the right to ask: ???what does any of this have to do with the traditional idea of ethics, which is all about precise moral rules that bind individual behavior??? What is the fear of applying personal morals to the unique circumstances of commercial life In the current cultural setting, ethical behavior requires no fixed rules concerning right and wrong.
Students are getting the message. A poll commissioned by the National Association of Scholars, and conducted by Zogby International, asked 400 college seniors what their professors have taught them concerning right and wrong. Only one quarter said that ???there are clear and uniform standards of right and wrong by which everyone should be judged,??? while three quarters said that right and wrong depends ???on differences in individual values and cultural diversity.???
When the students were asked about the ethical priorities of business, the most common answer was that business should recruit ???a diverse workforce in which women and minorities are advanced and promoted.??? Next in line on the list of priorities chosen by students: ???minimizing environmental pollution,??? followed by ???avoiding layoffs by not exporting jobs or moving plants from one area to another.??? Meanwhile, only 23 percent thought that ethics had anything to do with accurate financial statements.
This poll and the current trends in publishing, combined with real-life business scandals this year, suggest that it is time for a return to first principles; principles not of political fads but of something more enduring. Business managers need a foundation in fundamental moral postulates, including the prohibitions against theft and fraud, the classical and Judeo-Christian table of vices and virtues, the Golden Rule to treat others as you wish to be treated, the Pauline Principle that ???one may not do evil that good may come??? (Romans 3:8), which applies even in a stock-market boom.
The reassertion and discussion of first principles, fostering a virtue-based business ethics approach, would provide far more of a moral education to future business leaders than all the case studies and rap sessions that define the current ???business ethics??? climate.
If we are to learn anything from the ethical lapses of business this year, it should be that the Judeo-Christian moral code needs to be retrieved, not reformulated, much less wholesale politicization. Old truths need to be spoken into new contexts, remembering that the basic principles of right and wrong are discovered, not invented. Nor do they change based on circumstance or popularity. If this lesson is not learned from the corporate scandals, we cannot expect the moral standing of business, that activity that most people spend much of their time occupied with, to achieve a level worthy of human beings and a civilized culture.


Ethics is very subjective and not objective. While one might think that bringing ethics into business might be the a good way to run business but it is very difficult to establish the fine line of what is ethical and not ethical. For example, when someone is running a business and making decisions, one has to account for multiple perspectives/aspects and weigh out the options for making the most practical decision for the business and for ones self without having to compromise ones values. While that might be the best and most desirable choice for that person, it can be argued that the choice made was not ethical from another persons perspectives BECAUSE that person did not have to account for all the perspecitves/aspects and the options. So, even though there is a chance that the person who is judging could arrive at the same conclusion as the previously mentioned business owner IF the person is making the decision, BECAUSE that person is not making the decision, it can be seen as unethical.

Our society is run by corporations and large businesses and often their ethics are called into question. While it is understandable that those buisnesses have to look out for their own they have obligations as a crucial part of the society to act responsibly and to contribute to the society. If we let the businesses to behave unehtical and looking out for their own agendas only, it is only a matter time before our society become chaotic. There has to be an ethical standard of which businesses are governed and ran, after all businesses are run by people.

Against ethic is more persuasive.


Rebecca Jones
Professor Bill Prince
PLS 101, Section 117
April 27, 2010
Media Biases
Extra credit
I would have to say yes when asked the question ???Do I feel the media are biased???. There are many ways this is found to be true. I would say they are biased first by commission, which is a pattern of passing along assumptions or errors that tend to support a left wing or liberal view. The next one I would list would be bias by omission, this is when ignoring facts that tend to disprove liberal or left wing claims, or that support conservative beliefs. There is also bias by story selection. This would be a pattern of highlighting news stories that coincide with the agenda of the Left while ignoring stories that coincide with the agenda of the Right. Then there would be bias by placement, this happens when there is a pattern of placing news stories so as to downplay information supportive of conservative views. As well as Bias by the Selection of Sources, This bias can be seen when a reporter uses such phrases as “experts believe,” “observers say,” or “most people think.” The bias by spin is when emphasizing aspects of a policy favorable to liberals without noting aspects favorable to conservatives; putting out the liberal interpretation of what an event means while giving little or no time or space to explaining the conservative interpretation. There is also bias by labeling, this is when someone is attaching a label to conservatives but not to liberals; using more extreme labeling for conservatives than for liberals; identifying a liberal person or group as an “expert” or as independent. Lastly there is bias by Policy Recommendation or Condemnation, this is when a reporter goes beyond reporting and endorses the liberal view of which policies should be enacted, or affirms the liberal criticism of current or past policies.
I wouldn??™t say media biases are either good or bad, they are simply part of life. I suppose if you don??™t want to hear them you would have to quit watching television, listening to the radio, reading the paper and getting on the Internet. I can say without a doubt that there is not one person in the world that isn??™t bias about something. It is just part of human nature. What matters the most is how you react when you hear the things people have to say.


Ethical Issues and Management Paper
Vanessa Gemelli
November 7, 2011
University of Phoenix

Ethical Issues and Management Paper
The duties of a manager are more than just managing one department, in many cases manager have to make crucial decision almost every time. Managers have a big role and have to take part in many different areas. Part of a managers responsibility consist of hiring, performance evaluation discipline, termination, harassment cases, be a role model and in many cases diversity situation.
In this paper I will be speaking about the role of hiring. I will be describing the moral and ethical issues faced by a manager when hiring, I will also explain how relationships between social issues and ethical responsibility management practice during a hiring process. I will also give an example of a workplace example of an ethical matter involving hiring.
Unfortunately there are moral and ethical issues in which managers have to deal with. In a managers role, a manager must make sure to make the appropriate decision in which will benefit the company. There are regulations in which the state regulations have put to place.
In order for a manager to make the appropriate decision manager must act in a professional matter. A manager is a role model, and in many cases they are responsible for everything that happens around them and keeping a safe and comfortable environment is a most.
When a manager is in the process of hiring, a manager most make sure that during the process they choose the appropriate team member. When we are speaking about moral and ethical situation people do not realize how much investment the company puts in hiring and training of the new team member. Therefore making a poor hiring decision can cost the company a significant amount of money.
From productivity, customer service and liability prospective have been widely studied and has been estimated to be three times the annual salary of the individual involved (Calvasina, Calvasina & Calvasina 2008).
What this quote means is that a manager must make a hiring decision based on skills, moral and ethical values. Usually when a manager hires it goes further than that. Motivation is a huge part of the hiring process. During the hiring process a manager must take to affect that when hiring there are laws to follow, hiring is based on what type of candidate best qualifies for the position. A manager most hire without looking at race, gender or religion.
In many cases hiring managers and other managers have to deal with moral issues. It is important to make sure that when dealing with the matter of moral issues the manager keeps in mind of what and whom they are dealing with. As a manager it is necessary to realize that moral issues will happened on a daily basis. .
Before a manager hires a new employee, he/she must make sure that they are professional. The manager should follow code of ethics that supports and promotes human rights, equity, dignity, confidentiality, and respect. (Hussein, Magdy 2009)
When a manager practice good managerial ethics, a manager has to practice social issues and ethical responsibility! Unfortunately in many cases when manager make a decision it could affect the staff and society. Therefore a good hire is crucial to prevent any ethical violation that could happened during the hiring process.
Technology has become a big part of the hiring process, and when technology is use it could become a social case. Internet is one of the new technology in which has taking place when hiring, now in order to get a job in many cases the person needs to apply on line the way a person could apply would be through the companies official website, Craigslist, Career builder or, when using this type of websites it could turn out to be a social and ethical matter.
When applying for a job online this could become a social case. In many cases when applying online personal information must be entered (name, birthday, sex, ethnic). Some people take advantage of this resources and try to sue the company for not been hired because of discrimination.
A company??™s approach to ethics and legal compliance has an enormous impact on their employees attitudes and behaviors. (Gibson, David G. Toffler, Barbara L, Trevino, Linda K and Weaver Gary R.)
In the United States there is the law of The Equal Employment Opportunity which is the representative in which believe that they have been discriminated because they were not hired; this law was made to protect employees and candidates from any type of discrimination. This is why a manager must make the appropriate hiring decision.
I work for a very big company we are all over the United States, in order to get hired you must go through one phone interview and then seven more interviews. After the seven interview are if the interviewers think you qualify for the position and are the best candidate you have to pass a drug test, a physical and also have to lift 50 pounds in order to get the job.
When going through he interview process It does not matter if you are white, black a woman or a man, small or big everyone must pass the same interviews, drug test, physical and lift the same amount of pounds in order to get hired. At the beginning I use to not understand how can women do the same physical as a man, how can a woman pick up 50 pounds, I use to think it was not fair, but one day I was very curious and I spend some time with human resources and ask them what was the reason to this.
After a pretty long conversation human resources made me realize that if they did not have the same hiring concept no matter who it was this could bring the company a legal matter. They also explained that if a woman was not able to do the same physical assessment it would be consider unethical for a woman to be treated differently than man.
After researching and finding out the legal and ethical issues associating with the hiring process it is obvious that moral and ethical plays an enormous part of the hiring process. If a manager of a company does not lead by example it is very hard for the staff to follow ethical behaviors.

Waters, J.A. Bird, F.,& Chant, P.D.(1986, October). Everyday moral issues experienced by mangers. Journal of Business Ethics, 5(5),373-384
Weiss, Michael (2000) Ethical bosses more likely to have ethical workers, Phoenix Business
Calvasina, Gerald E. calvasina, Richard, Making more informe hiring decisions: policy and practice issues for employers??? Journal of Legal, Ethical and Regulatory, Jan 2008 Issue
Benefits, challenges, and the required managerial tool.


Sam Watson
AP Government Summer Assignment
???Plunging Into Politics???

Goldberg, Bernard. BIAS. Washington, D.C. Regnery Publishing Company. 2002.

Bernard Goldberg??™s book offers us a view of the media that is not often publicized. The news that is reported to us by CBS, NBC, FOX, as well as the press (Wall Street Journal, New York Times, etc.) is filled with bias that affects the way the facts are delivered. Goldberg??™s book outlines this with the event that took him off of the air as a long time CBS journalist at CBS headquarters in NY, and supports his argument with examples of similar situations in the media.
Goldberg was a long time critic of liberal bias in the news. Working at CBS, a very liberal news group, he felt it??™s presence in the field, at the headquarters; everywhere involved in putting the stories out on the evening broadcast or other programs. When he approached Andrew Heyward, President of CBS news at the time, he was brushed off. Repeatedly he asked to cover stories and proposed programs that he thought would counter other stories that had recently run, that would provide another opinion on the matter. He was told it was ???controversial??? and dismissed. Goldberg bluntly told Heyward that he knew the media was biased, Heyward knew it, and America knew it. Heywards response was, ???I know it is, everyone knows it. But if you tell anyone, I??™ll deny it???.
Goldberg says that the problem with media bias is that it cannot be removed by simply pointing it out to the press. What I took from his book is that; this is because they do not see it. The media has become a tool for politics. People will stand by their political views, as they should. They have the freedom to say what they want and express their beliefs. But the conflict arises when these beliefs and the facts delivered on the news clash. The way a story is told, the critics brought in to analyze it, and censoring of stories can turn facts into entertainment or propaganda.
Issues in America become center-points of political campaigns. And the media has a history of raising issues during different campaigns to sway the views of politicians and parties. One example that Goldberg offered was the problem of the Homeless in America. During the 1980??™s, homelessness was a large problem in America, and the current president was George H.W. Bush. The media ran stories weekly on how little aid was being given to help, how low-income housing was not being built, and all the while portraying the homeless of America as middle class white families. This portrayal is misleading at best. In truth, well over 50% of homeless are drug abusers or multiple ex-convicts. But by getting American people to relate to the issue, the media can swing their support to it. This is where the media becomes a dangerous tool of politics. During Bush Sr.??™s presidency, stories on homelessness in America were a weekly occurrence. However, when Clinton was inaugurated, the media sharply dropped it??™s interest in the issue. Data from their stories show that significantly less stories were run during Clintons administration than there were in Bush??™s. And when George W. Bush was not even sworn in, but still campaigning, the issue again spiked occurrence in the press. It??™s presence helped to draw explanations from the parties and candidates on that specific issue. It is know that in conservative viewpoints, spending money and creating organizations is not the preferred way to solve such problems, and that was the primary topic of the stories run about Homelessness.
Overall, I took a lot away from the book. Its argument is that Liberal bias distorts the news that we get our facts from. I believe that bias is present everywhere, from the more conservative Wall Street Journal to the more liberal New York Times. Bias, regardless of political partisanship, is in all of our news. It is no secret, yet is denied to all ends by many. The news seems to have become more of an entertainment industry than journalism; in the sense that the stations and broadcast stay alive due to good ratings by the viewers, as well as quarterly revenue. The news is too often censored to avoid offending anyone, or to boost ratings and viewer approval, and that just isn??™t RIGHT. That is distortion of the facts, and I view it as dishonest and selfish.
As a conclusion, I agree with the views expressed by the author Bernard Goldberg. He claims himself to be a Liberal, and I have many conservative views, some liberal. Yet we both have seen this as a problem in out new (the reason I chose his book). It tells me that this is not a partisan battle that is happening in the media and the press. It is an issue of personal views influencing important stories that are fed to Americans every day as facts. He makes many unarguable points on the issue, and even though I did not think his hypothetical analysis of the scenarios helped his case ( only attempted to glorify it), I would agree 100% with his argument and his book. The news that we receive from stations such as CBS, ABC, FOX etc are distorted with BIAS.