Biblical Aspects of Acculturaion
Secular Concepts ??“ acculturation assimilation, bicultural stance, separation, marginalization
Biblical concept ??“ biblical adaptation with integrity
Biblical adaptation with integrity
* The Christian adapts to the host culture in such a way as to establish meaningful relationships with people from that culture; however, the Christian does not compromise personal faith values and so maintains a stance of uncompromised integrity in any new attitudes and behaviors.
* Examples ??“ Joseph in Egypt (Genesis ch 37 ch 50)
* Daniel, Shadrach, Meshach, & Abednego in Babylon & Persia (book of Daniel)
* Ester (book of Esther)
* Ruth (book of Ruth)
Paul (Acts, 1 Corinthians)
Hudson Taylor (missionary to china)
As Christian adapting to another culture, we are not called to acculturation or assimilation. We are called to a process of prayerful discernment in which we display Biblical adaptation with Integrity. This is the principle see in the Old and New Testaments. We do not have to compromise to relate to people. Loving our neighbor as ourselves is a universal language that can led people to Christ.
The person may experience ??“ assimilation, separation, marginalization, biculturalization (integrated)
Typical Methods of Acculturation assessment in many clinics
* None is done
* – ???luck of the draw???
* Asking the client whether she prefers a therapist of the same race/culture
Acculturation assessment ??“ acculturalization processes are complex. Often a client may behave in a more majority culture manner in one situation and a more original cultural way in another. Such behavior can complicate assessment and make the focus of therapy unclear. The therapist may have to determine whether a client with a particular set of problems will respond better to a bicultural approach, a more majority culture one, or whether the client will need both types of treatment, varying from situation to situation.
Acculturation as two continuums
-each MC client shows two continuums in adaption
Acculturation as multidimensional
Each MC client problem has at least 2 continuums for each problem. Also, the US is pluralistic rather than uniform
The above two continuums ratings change depending on the problem being discussed
Acculturation assessment: general areas
Years in country
Extant, short acculturation assessment instruments
Generation ??“ frequent differences in acculturation level between 1st, 2nd and 3rd generations ??“ a common source of family conflicts when adolescence occurs ( for ex., dating)
Immigration Context ??“ learning the conditions of the original family??™s departure
* War & political turmoil or stable homeland
* SES variables influence
Years in the Country ??“ deceptive in & of itself
More useful when other variables also considered (employment history, social environment, family environment)
Language usage ??“ one of the mains areas to consider
* What language were you thinking in the waiting room
* What language do you dream in the most
* What language do you speak in mostly with your friends ??“ family
* What are some of your favorite TV programs
* In general what language do you speak and read the most
* In what languages are the radio programs you listen to
Types of questions about Social Supports
* Mostly ethnic White Estimated percentage of each
* What is the ethnicity / culture of your best friend
Preferred social gatherings
* Mostly original culture based
* Majority culture
For parents ??“
* If you choose your children??™s friends, who would yu prefer them to be Mostly ethnic White A mixture
* Least valid indicator in most acculturation assessment instruments
* Only use information on types of foods eaten in conjunction with other sources of information
Common Acculturation ??“ treatment issues
* Translator issues
* Translators can change the content
* Without counseling training, translators can minimize a client??™s problems
* Accultural marital issues
* Differ from inter-cultural marital issues
* Couple from the same general cultural background, but they have acculturated at different rates, leading to conflicts in the marriage
* Employment issues
* Adolescent conflicts
* Dating issues
* If at all possible, do not have the child/adolescent as the family translator
* Extant acculturation assessment instruments
* Acculturation assessment instruments are available for many cultural groups. Such instruments should be considered in clinics which are located in areas with high client cultural populations. Many of these instruments are short and can easily be added to a clinic??™s intake procedures for such clients. Utilize PsychInfo and other databases to find these instruments.
* The white population
* Racial discrimination towards other groups
* Reacations/feelings along two continuums
* Guilt vs. denial
* Defensiveness vs overcompensation
* Limited awareness of legitimate minority population needs
* More awareness of how some take advantage of diversity-related programs in a manipulative fashion vs those with legitimate needs who have been helped
* Reverse discrimination has sensitized the white population to the outrage of discrimination based on race
* When will discrimination of all sorts end.
* Who is white in the US ??“ historicall the definition has varied over time
* Started with wealthy colonial English
* These originally discriminated against and not considered White
* – irish
* Scotch ??“ irsh
Within group whites differences ??“
* Geographic region ??“ the deep south vs California
* Religious differences
* SES level
* Degree of maintenance of cultural patterns varies from original ethnic groups
* White differential experience
* Experiences common for Whites that may not be common for other ethnic groups
* Assurance of being with someone from your race if you so desire most of the tiem during the day
* Shopping with less concern of being watched for shoplifting or harassed
* Watching TV with members of your race represented in the programs
* When using checks or credit cards at a store, you can feel assured your race will not be a suspicion for the clerk
* Common Values ??“
* Strong work ethic
* External signs of success
* Within group variation for the above
* Meritocracy ??“
* A more realistic modified meritocracy more helpful
* Life is not fair ??“ unequal resources, unequal access. ??“ however with hard work you can overcome these obstacles
* We should work to create more opportunity in the system for everyone
* Individual choices, values, & beliefs matter and will impact your success wherever your starting point in life is.
* Treatment strategies ??“ Values exploration
* While whites may be uncomfortable with the term ???ethnic identity??? in therapy because it appears meaningless to them, they are much more open to exploring their core values and beliefs.
* Empirically supported treatments ??“
* CBT , interpersonal psychotherapy, EMDR ??“ eye movement desensitization routine
Two sides of the Debate
– Multicultural literature portrayal
– Other aspects rarely considered in such literature
Need for balance
Multicultural Literature Portrayal
* Evil as a superpower
* Native Americans
* Blacks/African Americans
* Developing Countries
* Civil War
* Native American Education changes
* Voting Rights
* Ethnic & women??™s civil rights progress
* President Obama, general colin powell, bill cosby
* Sarah palin, hiliary Clinton, condolezza Rice, oprah winfrey
* Oppressor or maintainer of Freedom
* World War I, II, Cold War ??“ International human rights and freedom exist because of the US Role in winning each of the above wars
* Opressor or benevolent Country
* World disasters & U.S. Government aid ??“ Haiti (200(, other earthquakes, Tsunami (2004)
* Ministries and private charitable organizations
* Well water projects example
* Agriculture improvements
* Evil portrayal has advantages for some countries
* Averts other countries responsibility in their situation
* Blaming the US diverts responsibility for each country to generate jobs and industries ??“ examples ??“ countries rich in oil
* The behavior of immigrants themselves
* Why are so many immigrants (legal and Illegal) trying to get in to the U.S.
* If the U.S. was such a horrible country, people would not be trying to get in!
* The behavior of immigrants themselves is a tell-tale sign that things are not so terrible in the U.S. People are not stupid. If the United States was such a horrible country with such terrible racism and oppression, why are so many legal and illegal immigrants trying to get into the U.S. Evidently, billions of people all over the world see the U.S. as a beacon of freedom (not oppression) and opportunity. Despite the risks, despite the problems, despite the dangers, people are ???breaking the doors down??? to get into the United States. Yes, there still are racial and discriminatory problems in the U.S., don??™t misunderstand me, but immigrants feel these current problems can??™t compare to the opportunities that would come to them from just being here. In short, immigrants are saying something with their feet. If their countries were better than the U.S. regarding equal rights, discrimination, safety, and opportunity, they would stay there. Indeed, even people in the U.S. would be leaving the country! People want to be here because there is something special going on here. Truly, this is the land of opportunity.
* Portraying the U.S. as ???evil??? also has advantages for some countries. It averts their responsibility in dealing with their country??™s problems. Blaming the U.S. keeps people from recognizing the duties their governments have for stimulating their economies to generate jobs and develop industries. For example, think of the oil rich countries in the Middle East, Mexico, and Venezuela. They literally can hold the entire world hostage with this resource. They should be the most prosperous nations, with a thriving middle class, many jobs, and much prosperity. Blaming the U.S. keeps people distracted from the few outrageously rich people and government officials who are making incredible amounts of money while the nation??™s populace as a whole suffers tremendously. Something??™s wrong with this picture, and it has to do with a lot more than the U.S.
* When a nation experiences a disaster, who is the first nation to come to its aid Over and over again, it??™s the United States. Who spends the most money in supplying foreign aid in situations like Haiti??™s earthquake in 2009, tsunamis, and other international disasters Over and over again, it??™s the U.S. This goes beyond official government aid. Ministries and private charitable organizations build medical centers, dig wells in drought-stricken areas, develop agricultural improvements, and provide education for people who would not get it otherwise. In looking at the history of superpowers, one can make a case that the U.S. is the most giving superpower in history.
* s the U.S. an oppressor of countries or a maintainer of freedom Without the U.S. involvement in World Wars I, II, and the Cold War, what would the world be like today There would be no democracy, no freedom, no human rights in the world. The Nazis, fascist dictators, and communists would have won. There would be no free government systems at all. In short, international human rights and freedom exist because of the U.S. role in winning each of the above named wars. Without it, life for the entire world would be under oppressive forms of government control.
* One of the most amazing things about the U.S. that is sometimes missed is how it goes through a process of self-reflection and change over time. It does not stay the same. A civil war was fought and Blacks were freed from this evil. Boarding schools that once attempted to forcibly acculturate Native Americans were eventually changed instead to affirm tribal cultures. Voting rights were established and civil rights legislation passed to safeguard the rights and welfare of ethnic minorities and women. The education system in the U.S. changed to include more multicultural perspectives. Little by little, we??™ve seen a steady growth in the opportunities for ethnically diverse people and women. For example, President Obama, General Colin Powell, Bill Cosby, and others are providing new role models for the Black community. For women, Sarah Palin, Hilary Clinton, Condoleezza Rice, and Oprah Winfrey inspire women to believe that more opportunities exist now than they once thought. In short, the United States has changed for the better in regards to ethnic and women??™s issues. Yes, there is still plenty of room to grow, but over time, the U.S. has demonstrated a capacity for self reflection and change. That is a great strength.
* The multicultural literature has been correct to point out the serious atrocities in the U.S.??™ history. The genocide of Native Americans, slavery and oppression of African Americans, the historical mistreatment of women, and, internationally, a sense of abusive treatment of developing world countries. Focusing on these issues is needed when considering what the U.S. is as a country. Are there other areas to consider as well
* The multicultural literature basically focuses on the U.S. as an oppressive country. The general undertone in some books gives you the sense that the U.S. is evil as a superpower.
* he multicultural movement has impacted the educational system in the U.S. over the years. Due to its influence, important flaws in the U.S., mistakes, and areas of oppression have increasingly been recognized. This was a needed correction. What I find interesting is that some students have not been adequately exposed to other aspects of the United States??™ history. It seems the pendulum has swung the other way too far, so this presentation seeks to restore a healthy sense of balance, where both strengths and weaknesses are acknowledged.
* Again, my goal here is balance. The U.S. does have real problems in the areas of equal rights and discrimination, as the multicultural literature has pointed out well. The negative labels in some of the MC literature however imply a static state when the U.S. actually is dynamic and changing for the better with time. We need to consider all aspects of information on the U.S. to come to a balanced perspective. We must recognize the history of oppression, discrimination, mistakes, and sins of the U.S. majority culture. We also need to recognize the progress in dealing with these issues over time as well. We need to keep in mind the positive historical contributions of the U.S. as well as its mistakes. We also need to consider the implications of the immigrants themselves. People vote with their feet, and a lot are saying they want to be here. Each person has to ask some important questions: Has the U.S. made progress in dealing with significant social issues such as ethnic & women??™s rights over the last 100 years Has the world benefited from the U.S. existing over the last 100 years Your answers may vary. Each person is challenged to get enough information on the positives and negatives to make a balanced assessment.
* Religious diversity
* must start this presentation with the awareness of my audience. Many of you are Christians; however, some of you belong to other faiths or no faith at all. I will endeavor to be respectful of each of you in the presentation that follows. In terms of full disclosure, I am a born again evangelical Christian. We??™re going to focus in this presentation on why multicultural and general counseling text chapters on religion often are written in an eastern,??™???new age???, sort of way, and what the implications are of this stance. Topics will include religious demographics of the U.S., psychologists??™ religious demographics, secular counseling values, counseling techniques derived from religion, the values of monotheistic religions compared to eastern religions, and some implications.
* ake a look at the statistics described in this chart. 76-87% (depending on the study) of people in the U.S. describe themselves as Christian. 1% are Jewish, and smaller percentages are Muslim, Buddhist, or Hindu. 13% describe themselves as nonreligious. Yet, many multicultural texts use eastern definitions and concepts though the percentage of this population is small. For example, many define God as ???Spirit??? or ???energy???. This strikes me as very inconsistent with the premises of multicultural counseling. One of the goals of multicultural counseling is to communicate in a way that adapts to your audience so that they can receive your message. Talking in Eastern language and concepts when most of your audience is monotheistic is culturally insensitive.
* Examining some of the religious characteristics of counselors and psychologists compared to the U.S. population may help us understand some of why this is occurring. The best recent study was published by Delaney, Miller, & Bosono in 2007 in Professional Psychology: Research and Practice. Take a look at those percentages compared to the U.S. population. 16% of psychologists sampled espouse the category ???none??? (agnostic, atheist, or no religion) compared to 6% for the U.S. 15% adopt ???Other??? as their religious category. This would include Eastern religions. This is compared to 1% of the U.S. population. As for the importance of religion, the % of the U.S. population who state they base their whole approach to life on their religion is over twice as high as the % of psychologists claiming to do the same. These differences may account for some of the writing style differences.
* ooking at secular counseling values can also help us understand this unusual disregard for the cultural characteristics of counseling text audiences. Here are a few of the values found in secular counseling, as well as their stance on God. First, the self is good. No doubt about it. No ifs, ands, or buts. Second, morals are all relative. There??™s no such thing as an absolute. Also, just thinking about God in and of itself is an uncomfortable subject. God has been pathologized by some prominent counseling theorists such as Freud and Ellis. As more and more research has been done on religious people, however, this has led to a reevaluation of such negative stances. Most of this research was done in the U.S. with high %s of people from a Christian background. The results have led to more openness to religion and spirituality. Along the way, another value emerged: All religions were equal, with no religion better than another. Also, given the lack of comfort with organized religion, ???spirituality??? became a much more comfortable way of talking about faith.
* he research findings on religion led to more openness to exploring techniques derived from religion. Interestingly, these have been derived from Hinduism and Buddhism. What is so surprising about this is that monotheistic traditions all have similar ???techniques??? that could be developed that are much more congruent with the worldview of their adherents. Now, again, if you??™re Buddhist, New Age, or Hindu viewing this PointCast, I??™m not attacking your faith. I am pointing out that researching techniques derived from such religions doesn??™t fit with the religion of the U.S. audience. The Christian spiritual formation literature, for example, has much potential to develop similar counseling techniques. Muslims have a Sufi tradition that could lead to more sensitive techniques for them. The Jewish tradition likewise has a contemplative vein that could lead to religiously congruent techniques. Given the client population, why weren??™t these researched before eastern religions
* Examining the beliefs of Eastern religions compared to monotheistic religions may help us understand this culturally insensitive choice. Many Eastern religions (for example, many versions of Buddhism) have no god at all. Many also describe impersonal forces or ???energy??? (Taoism for example discusses ???Chi???, a life force energy). Some eastern religions also contain a belief that is very different than monotheistic views of the self. Hinduism states that Brahman is Atman and Atman is Brahman. Some counseling authors interpret this to mean that God is enlightened self and enlightened self is God. Those students viewing this presentation coming from a Muslim, Christian, or Jewish background might want to recall the fall of Satan and its similarities to that statement. Satan was not satisfied being a created being subject to God; rather, he wanted to be God. This pride led to his fall. From the monotheistic stance of three major religions, therefore, such a statement is more than inaccurate. It??™s spiritually perilous. If you??™re a Hindu viewing this presentation, you know a proper interpretation of the above statement is much more nuanced. I??™m focusing on how most counseling authors interpret it. Regarding morals, eastern religions have moral value statements that are very similar to monotheistic religions in regards to how to treat people, but I do not know enough about them to say whether these may involve absolutes. Consider these overall Eastern beliefs on this slide. As you examine them, think about the secular counseling values previously described. Do you see some similarities For example, the counseling interpretation of Hinduism that enlightened self is god and god is enlightened self has similarities with the counseling belief that self is good.
* The three major monotheistic religious systems (Islam, Judaism, and Christianity) also have common beliefs. These common beliefs stand in contrast to Eastern conceptualizations, though many multicultural religion chapters try to imply they are the same. For monotheistic traditions, God is not an impersonal force, nonexistent, or the same as an enlightened ???me???. God is a real being with a personality who is distinct from human beings. Let??™s consider the self. In counseling, the self is good. In monotheistic religions, the self is a more complicated subject. As we??™ve discussed from a Christian perspective in previous weeks, for example, we are created in the image of God, so we have the potential to do good things. We are also fallen, however, and so we have the propensity to do evil as well. Monotheistic religions believe some morals are absolute. Let??™s take an extreme example. It??™s wrong, for instance, to rape a new born baby. Here??™s a less extreme example. Most of you belief that it??™s wrong for multicultural counseling professors to grade their students assignments unfairly. If you do not believe in at least some absolutes, you cannot state either of these beliefs clearly. Monotheistic religions also believe that one religion is better than the others. Muslims believe their religion is the best. Orthodox Jews believe theirs is, and evangelical Christians believe theirs is. Adherents to each of these religions will try to convince you that theirs is the best. Now it??™s important to note that having a religious opinion and sharing it are not the same as intolerance. A small sliver of radical extremists do become violent, but billions of Muslims, Christians, and Jews live peacefully in the same countries all over the world. And, sometimes, tragically, they do not. Generally though free will choice is still respected in most contexts. Now think about the beliefs described above and compare them to secular counseling values. Can you see how these values conflict with secular counseling values Indeed, can you see the reason why we have to have integration programs like Liberty University to train students coming from such belief systems Without such schools, students would be force-fed Eastern religious ideology that is embedded in counseling chapters on religion and spirituality.
* Before getting to the implications, I want to be clear with you again as a student that I??™m not attacking you if you??™re a Buddhist, new age practitioner, a Hindu, a Muslim, or any other religion. I may disagree with you, but, consistent with my beliefs, I respect your freewill choice. There are implications to the choice of many secular multicultural writers??™ to adopt an Eastern framework for their discussions of religion and spirituality. One is that text chapters on religious diversity will be cumbersome and strange for the majority of their audience. Some authors do adopt a more monotheistic stance in their explorations (See the text of Richards & Bergin, 2005, for example), but the majority of counseling texts do appear to adopt this Eastern style. This choice appears culturally insensitive and inconsistent with the client population that counselors will deal with in the U.S
* Another implication, more important, also is apparent. Counseling authors have made a choice to advocate for a specific answer to an important question. The question is: Does God require anything of me, or am I only accountable to myself In other words, am I the god of my life I alone get to decide what??™s right and wrong, what God is like, and what is valuable in life. Some multicultural counseling theorists have implicitly taken their position in their writings, as intonated in the embedded values that we??™ve explored. How each of us answers this question ourselves will lead to significant potential outcomes. In most eastern religions, God is defined in an impersonal way so the question itself changes. In monotheistic religions, if I choose to say ???No, I??™m not accountable to anything but myself,??? I will live for myself and may justify any act based only on my needs, with no regard for the needs of others. I can be considerate when I want, but I don??™t have to. There can always be a reason to put me first. I also am making assumptions about what happens after death. If I say ???Yes, I am accountable,??? I may be more motivated to consider the needs of others and balance those needs with my own. I can also fall into a cycle of focusing so much on trying to do good works and perform the proper rituals that I live my life in fear and anxiety worried about whether I am truly saved (having a safe, secure relationship with God). A third option is to say ???Yes, I am accountable,??? and to place my life in the hands of One I trust to secure my relationship with God. For me as a Christian, that would be Jesus Christ. I still would be motivated to do good works, but these would be out of love and thankfulness for salvation as opposed to doing good works to earn salvation. There??™s a pitfall in this decision, too. I might take my salvation for granted so much that my love grows cold, or I might fool myself into thinking I??™ve placed my life in God??™s hands when I really haven??™t. Each of these decisions has implications for how we live our lives. Multicultural counseling texts have made their decisions and advocated for them. We each must make our own decision. Who will be the god of your life I pray that you decide wisely.
* his presentation focuses on ethical principles in working with religiously different clients. It focuses on professional secular settings as opposed to clearly ministry-related settings.
* What??™s best for the client??™s mental health always is the top consideration in your work. You want to provide what??™s optimal for the client. Respect for diversity is another important principle. If you are practicing in a secular clinic, government setting, secular hospital, etc., you do not impose your faith on someone who does not share it. Awareness of your personal values is also important. It??™s okay to recognize it if you??™re faith or other values will impact your ability to work with a client from a different religion. It can be beneficial to try to learn to work with clients from different religious backgrounds, especially if you see yourself called to working in secular professional environments. This does not mean that you endorse the client??™s beliefs, but that you are sensitive to how their faith impacts their mental health condition. You will encounter a variety of religious faiths in secular contexts. Referral is appropriate when you see significant faith differences that may end up harming the client??™s treatment.
* Evaluating your competency to treat a specific client is always important. This includes more than culture and religious variables, it can also include SES, the particular diagnosis, and other aspects. Right now you are a student in training, so it??™s expected that you will be learning how to work with different people through supervision, consultation, consulting the literature, and other means. These practices can help you grow in becoming competent to treat a variety of people. Making sure the client knows enough about therapy with you to make up his/her mind is important, especially if you plan on setting up a Christian therapy practice after you are licensed. Go with the type of informed consent procedures in place at your practicum and internships. Learn all you can there. I??™ve posted two sample informed consents that might be helpful after a few years when you??™re practicing as a licensed counselor. These describe my training in dealing with faith issues in therapy. One is for a specifically Christian-based practice and another is for a practice more geared to spiritual issues in general. You can see that your personal values would determine which you might want to adapt for your own use. Remember, you would use these along with your regular informed consent that describes general counseling issues (confidentiality, fees, calls, etc.). Following these five ethical principles (client welfare, respect for diversity, personal values, competency to treat, and informed consent) will help you learn to work with a variety of people.
* he Latino population goes by a variety of names. Each can have different connotations dependent on the particular subculture you are dealing with. For example, some Latinos do not like the term ???Hispanic??? because of its historical connection with Spain and Spain??™s conquest/mistreatment of the native peoples of Central and South America. Because of this, ???Latino??? is a safe starting point to address this population. Learn from the client what particular term he or she prefers.
* he Latino population is now the largest ethnic minority population in the U.S.
* Census counts are often inaccurate, so the actual percentage may be even than current numbers indicate. This population is also young, with a mean age about 11 years lower than Whites. The three largest groups of Latinos in the U.S. are Mexicans, Puerto Ricans, & Cubans.
* Latinos tend to value large families. They sometimes live in crowded small apartments or homes when they immigrate here. In the short term missions work I??™ve done in Latino countries, I??™ve seen that these living conditions in the U.S. are quite good compared to the options in their own country. In other words, U.S. poverty is a higher standard of living for many Latinos compared to their own countries. This has helped me understand more of the motivation of many indigent Latinos to come here, though it??™s illegal. This does not excuse the behavior however and I don??™t believe that people who want the border secure and a well thought out immigration policy are automatically racists. That??™s ridiculous, especially when you see some of the crime and chaos going on along the border areas of the U.S.. Some of my friends live near the border and this has helped me see both perspectives. Still, as I said, I could see myself taking the risk to enter illegally if I was a father with a family who had no work living in a country with a horrible economy. If I get caught, I pay the consequences. Now if the border became secure, I may not attempt to cross because the odds would increase that I would get caught. So there??™s your attempt at a balanced perspective that may contradict some of the perspectives advocated in some multicultural texts.
* Okay, moving on. When Latinos get here, many live in urban areas, though some are also ???hidden??? in rural regions. As I??™ve noted, there??™s a ???poverty trade-off??? for some of these immigrants. A high unemployment rate and substandard housing here in the U.S. combine with semiskilled or unskilled labor occupations to make the first generation??™s living conditions challenging. Also, many illegal immigrants who are fathers send money back home so that their families can live better or perhaps buy a home. They may work here for a few years and then return home.
* hildren tend to pick up English quicker than adults; however, those coming here many times need bilingual education programs in school to begin with. The way these programs are set up can lead to controversy. Some are set up with the goal of transitioning eventually to English classes, while other school districts try to set up programs that permit children to remain in Spanish education classes throughout their education. It??™s interesting that surveys of Latino parents show that the parents want their children to learn English as quickly as possible. The sentiment appears to be ???We can teach our children Spanish at home. They need to learn English to prosper in the U.S.??? Thus, how these programs are set up sometimes depends more on the political leanings of the school boards and local governments than it does on the actual wishes of the Latino parents!
* Now, we have to figure out education for Latino immigrants soon, because the high school dropout rate for Latinos is higher than for African Americans and Whites. College completion rates are also low compared to these other groups. Combine these two facts with the unskilled or semi-skilled work skills of some first generation immigrants, and you have a recipe for generational poverty. The education crisis continues for some subcultures such as the Mexican population. Other groups such as the Cuban population have less of an educational crisis.
* So what are some common Latino values Unity, loyalty to the family and friends, and cooperation are key. The family itself is often an extended network of family and friends (these may be affectionately ???adopted??? as uncles and aunts). In Catholic homes, the Godparents may take on a nurturing role with children. The heavy emphasis on family values and Catholicism leads to divorce being seen as less acceptable.
* There are other religions besides Catholicism, however, in Latin America. Evangelical Protestantism is growing. Some multicultural texts do not recognize the rapid growth of this subgroup, but it??™s on the rise in many countries, including my country of Argentina. Folk religions also play a part in many countries. Sometimes people will combine elements of Catholicism or Evangelical Protestantism with folk religions to create blends of religion known as syncretism.
* Let??™s take a look at some issues that may need to be considered with working with Latino immigrants. First, consider the language. If English is spoken as a second language, the client may benefit from working with a therapist who speaks his or her native language. This should not automatically be done, but should be carefully considered. The person??™s immigration status and stressors are also important. Did the person flee from political violence Poverty Was the person robbed/abused during the journey Etc. The loss of the extended family network is a big stressor. One of the early things a therapist can do to help a recent immigrant is help the person plug into a good Latino church or other community resources that would permit the rebuilding of an extended social network. Acculturation, of course, is a big issue. Not all Latinos are the same. We??™ve discussed some acculturation assessment strategies in another lecture. Home behavioral health may be a good treatment option to consider for an enculturated Latino family because of the differences in time conception. Now Latinos often learn quickly about the importance of timeliness in the U.S. for professional appointments, but it is something to keep in mind. Also, enculturated Latinos may tend to ask more personal questions of the therapist to get a sense of who you are as a person. Use wisdom in answering these, but you don??™t want to appear as a ???blank slate??? for enculturated Latinos.
* The ???Macho??? male still is an operating source of male identity for some men in the Latino culture. ???Macho??? men deny feelings, illness, pain, as these are seen as signs of weakness. They convey a strong need to be the main ???provider??? for the family, and because of this, unemployment can be a particularly big crisis. Such men rarely will come to therapy being identified as a client; however, sometimes I??™ve been able to get them to come in to serve as a ???consultant??? to help their wives. Allowing them this sense of identity lowers their defenses enough to show up and consider some of your input, if it??™s carefully worded. Creativity is required.
* Marianismo is a complementary identity set for some Latina women. This identity stresses purity, sacrificial care for family, and the raising of daughters as chaste.
* The emancipated woman is a Latina who has adopted more acculturated ways. Sometimes these women are still attracted to more traditional ???macho??? men, as one??™s family template is one of the last things that changes in acculturation. Such marriages with large acculturation differences can be especially challenging.
* Here are some things to keep in mind when working with enculturated Latinos. If the client may come from an illegal immigration background, it sometimes is helpful to clarify as a part of confidentiality that you will not report them to the immigration service. This must be done carefully, of course. In regards to your particular strategies, these can vary. Some authors advocate concrete and structured strategies while others encourage more insight-oriented approaches. Within-group subcultural differences may account for these various recommendations, as well as considerations of acculturation. It??™s helpful to have a discussion with Latino clients about their expectations for therapy and to orient them to the process.
* Enculturated Latinos will likely respect you as an authority figure in therapy. It will be important for you to connect your client with appropriate social service agencies if poverty and unemployment issues exist. Family therapy may also be a viable option. Keep in mind some of my comments though about Macho males if you do work with an enculturated father or husband as part of the family system. Whatever the treatment, it is often expected to be short-term and crisis oriented for enculturated clients.
* sian Americans are a rapidly growing population. Currently, they make up 4% of the U.S. population. Many are foreign born, recent immigrants, so there are a lot of first and second generation people here. Given this situation, you can imagine that there might be generational acculturation issues between immigrating parents and their teens who have grown up in the U.S. In some ways, Asian Americans can struggle with a perpetual foreigner label no matter how long or how many generations their family has lived here. Scholars think this may relate to the differences in facial features around the eyes. Imagine being considered a foreigner when you were born and raised here. There are some signs of increasing acceptance though as well. These include the percentages of interracial marriages that are occurring with other ethnicities.
* While a large number of Asians are immigrating to the U.S., all Asian Americans are not recent immigrants. We can learn much from their earlier history when we consider some of the issues today. In the 1840??™s, the Chinese immigrated to the U.S. due to political unrest at home and the advertisement of jobs to help build the transcontinental railroad. They were initially welcomed because of the need for workers on the railroad. After it was completed, however, and an economic recession hit, persecution of the Chinese began. They were seen now as an economic threat. Anti-Chinese legislation led to the denial of rights. Racial crimes were a common occurrence.
* hen one looks at the Japanese experience in the late 1890??™s when the economy had recovered and was booming again, one sees a similar pattern. They were welcomed and filled the need for workers until the next set of economic problems. The Gentlemen??™s Agreement and Alien Land Law in 1913 are examples of laws that stripped them of many common privileges. During WWII, 110,000 Japanese were put in refugee camps.
* So what are some of the lessons we can learn from looking at this history First, when the economy is booming and there??™s a need for workers, immigrants are seen as being important in filling the need and helpful in doing tasks that U.S. citizens are less open or available to do. However, when the economy takes a downturn, immigrants are seen as a competitor to U.S. citizens for jobs and a symbolic threat that needs to be controlled.
* There are some differences in today??™s environment as well. Terrorism adds a serious new variable. Many immigrants are also coming here illegally so the ability to control the flow of immigration has been compromised. Some multicultural authors have even taken the position that having any kind of immigration controls over who enters the U.S. represents racism and oppression. For some people this idea is philosophically appealing; however, it??™s dangerous practically. First, at the time of this writing, there have been several attempted terrorist attacks in the U.S. An open border would allow terrorists to easily enter the U.S. in the middle of a war on terrorism. Does that make sense Second, no controls would lead to a flood of immigrants to the U.S. In short, the country could not absorb the flood and maintain its culture, medical and social services. I have friends who now live on the border areas of the country and have seen the challenges of the current situation. Even as a Latino American, I can tell you it??™s not pretty. An open border would make matters even more chaotic. It??™s easy to talk about open borders when you don??™t live near the borders and you don??™t experience some of the crime and dangers. Live there a couple of years and then let??™s talk. You may have a different perspective. I respect that. I??™ve come to realize that wanting a sane immigration policy with secure borders is not tantamount to racism, though some multicultural authors would have you believe this. At the time of this PointCast, the situation is still a mess and needing much prayer.
* Many Asians immigrating in the 1970??™s were refugees. Fleeing a situation in an emergency and becoming a refugee creates a different set of treatment issues than typical immigration. The Vietnamese and Cambodians after the Vietnam war, Iraqi war refugees, Tsunami victims, Hurricane Katrina victims in 2005 all have this experience of being a refugee. In these situations there is little or no time to prepare. The person has little control over their own fate in the emergency. The emergency can relate to war, political unrest, or natural disasters. Many witness murders, deaths, or tragedies and have to leave behind family members. Given these sorts of experiences, PTSD symptoms are common in refugees. They often wait in refugee camps under horrible conditions for long periods of time before they get relocated to a safe and stable area.
* When examining the Asian community, some have advocated that they represent a model minority population. While there are some positive statistics, one has to be careful with such a label because it leads you to overlook important areas of need. Positive statistics include high levels of academic achievement, low levels of delinquency, a higher median income compared to the White population, and the high rate of business ownership. These general statistics can hide significant subcultural differences. The American Hmong, for example, have drastically different statistics. Also, in regards to income levels, Asian Americans often live in high cost urban areas and frequently have several wage earners in family to make ends meet. As I just noted in mentioning the Hmong, there are significant within group differences in SES. Frequently, Asian American communities attempt to conceal their poor neighborhoods, in part due to concerns about a loss of face and in part to maintain high levels of tourism in urban areas.
* everal common values can be seen in East Asian cultures such as Japan and China. These cultures emphasize a collectivistic worldview compared to the individualistic worldview found in the U.S. majority culture. Collectivism focuses on the importance of the needs of the group as a whole compared to the individual. This can be seen in a closely related value–harmony in relationships. Traditional East Asian cultures try to avoid overt competition. For example, think about the types of small businesses you see that are common amongst traditional enculturated Asian Americans??”ethnic restaurants, dry cleaners and laundromats, etc. Do you notice how these attempt to fill a need and are businesses that the White population seldom go into This fits with the collectivistic emphasis on harmony and adaptation versus competition. There also is a traditional emphasis on hierarchical relationships, although younger generations are moving away from this value. Related to hierarchy, there is a deference to authority, high respect is shown to those in authority. Emotional restraint is a common characteristic. Subcultures can vary on this, especially after they get to know you, but emotional restraint is commonly seen as a virtue in many Asian countries. A linked value is using physical complaints to deal with psychological and emotional stress.
* he traditional Asian family is patriarchal and extended, with authority passed down from father to son. Gender roles are rigidly defined. The extended family emphasizes harmony and structure, so it??™s resistant to change and conflicts are discouraged. Given the collectivistic worldview, there is an emphasis on obedience to elders, obligation to family, and conformity. As I??™ve mentioned, there is some change in these values in the younger generations of many countries, in part due to their exposure to U.S. individualistic values seen in movies, media, and on the internet. This has caused some generational tensions.
* Loss of face??? involves the shame & guilt a family member experiences when s/he dishonors the family. These feelings are experienced by all members of the family as well as the person committing the dishonorable act. It is much broader and deeper than individualistic persons in the U.S. would feel for embarrassing their families. Partly because of this, family members are encouraged to resolve problems within the family rather than with therapy.
* There are within group differences in the types of Asian American families in the U.S. There are the traditional families with traditional Asian values, families in culture conflict where the children adopt more individualistic values and practices (such as dating) compared to the older generations. Bicultural families try to maintain their Asian traditions and selectively adopt U.S. cultural practices. Americanized families have adopted an assimilation stance and lost their traditional values. New Millennium families reflect marriages from two different Asian cultures (Japanese and Chinese, for example) or marriages between Asians and other non-Asian ethnicities.
* The above religions are common in Asia. These are described in many multicultural texts. Buddhism, Confucianism (which is more of a philosophy than a religion), Hinduism, Shintoism and other ancestor worship variants, and Christianity. With increased contact with the West, Christianity is growing in many areas.
* Traditional Asians also vary in their communication style. Contrary to the ???tell it like it is??? direct style of the U.S. (known as low context communication for its lower emphasis on subtle, indirect context aspects), Asians use high context forms of communication. These rely much more on nonverbals, the specific setting, & shared group understandings of the nuanced meaning of what the speaker says. I??™ll give you an example. Let??™s say I??™m presenting a paper at a conference in Japan. At the end of my presentation, I invite my Japanese colleagues to critique the paper. Every professor states he or she likes the paper and praises it. I go away thinking I wrote a great paper! One problem, however. In the high context communication style of the Japanese culture in the conference setting, it??™s not what the professors said as much as how much and how long! A professor who states ???I liked your paper, very nice,??? and quickly sits down has just indirectly said that there were problems with the paper! Everyone in the audience will know this except me unless I realize that it??™s the amount of time and praise of the paper that will tell me how many problems my colleagues see with it. The high context form of communication has direct implications for the therapy setting. Traditional Asians will think it impolite to say ???No??? to a homework suggestion. They may say ???Yes??? and just not do it! You have to listen for verbal tone, nonverbal actions, etc. to get a sense of whether a homework assignment needs to be readjusted.
* Why are mental health services underutilized by traditional Asian Americans First, using such services would set up a loss of face. Asian cultures have a strong stigma associated with going to see a counselor. Also, mental health services may not be culturally adapted for Asians. Therapists wanting to develop an Asian client base need to interact meaningfully with the community. This is different from typical community clinic practices. Are there language issues Therapists speaking the language or having trained translators can be important. Asians may have misconceptions and need education about what mental health services actually involve. Finally, traditional Asian cultures also have alternative healing practices that traditional Asians may seek out instead of mental health services. Tai Chi, yoga, and acupuncture are examples.
* In working with Asians, keep in mind within-group differences and the importance of assessing acculturation and racial identity development. Because of the cultural mores against therapy, you may be seeing someone in a significant crisis if a traditional family does bring someone. In the second generation, treatment is often initiated around career, vocational, or academic issues. There are sometimes acculturation conflict undertones to these issues, with the parents wanting one particular career path and the student wanting another.
* Traditional Asians tend to benefit from a structured, educational approach that is practical and has some directive aspects. They will expect some suggestions or recommendations. This approach also must be nurturant and caring. Anticipate a short term, crisis-oriented treatment duration. Especially early on in treatment, it is helpful to frame psychological concepts in medical symptom-related manners rather than psychological ones. For example, instead of talking about depression, you might talk about the client??™s problems sleeping, concentrating, and having the energy to do things.