Ethnic Groups and Discrimination

Ethnic Groups and Discrimination

Kumoia Dorsey

ETH/125

November 23, 2010

Jamie Morgan

Ethnic Groups and Discrimination
African immigrates migrated from Africa to come to the United States. Between the years of 1921-1924, there was a legislation that didn??™t allow Africans to enter into the United States. During the Immigration Act of 1965, Africa and Asia ???developing??? countries had a substantial increase in the number of immigrates. Alone this time the immigration Act of 1965 also help many families to reunify too for great opportunities.

During the 20th Century is when the African became decolonized. The main reason Africans came to the United States was to advance themselves educationally before returning back to their country. This is when the brain drain came into play because the reason of immigrating turned out to be more permanent. Because professionals wanting to leave Africa to have a better living life in the United States. When immigrates from Africa settle into the United States they typically migrated into the urban areas, such as, Washington DC, New York, Columbus, Ohio, Atlanta, and Minneapolis.

African came into the United States through slavery. When African Americans became slaves they played a big role into the economic system. Not being able to vote and or have a say so in anything brought bad things unto the slaves. Prejudice was brought upon delivery of schools, jobs, neighborhoods, hospitals and etc. Racism started with African Americans in the 1600??™s. Within this time frame Africans started arriving in Jamestown. In 1705, blacks were forbidden to serve as witness in court cases. 1881, segregation of public transportation played a role in racism towards the African Americans. This timeline of racism just goes to show that African Americans have had racism thrown at them since entering into the United States through slavery.

Segregation toward the group of African Americans played a great amount from the beginning of time. For an example, Rosa Parks got arrested for not wanting to move out a while person sit. During this she created a controversy and boycott against this injudice. From this example things had changed for the African Americans. With the segregation of the bus there were a document made out for everyone to be equal. The Emmitt Till incident came about when a black boy whistled at a white girl and the white boys beat him to death. His mother wanted the world to see how they beat him so she decided to keep his casket open.

Ethnic Groups and Discrimination

African Americans were part of the dual labor market, due to a lower decrease in education. Even in today??™s world the dual labor market is still bad for the African Americans dealing with the job field. African Americans in the job field feel like they are at the bottom of the pole even when they have earned their degree. When the dual labor market started African Americans were put down into the dumps (jobs and living conditions). Whereas, the environmental justice issue, blacks have been separated into their own community trying to get rid of the pollution problems.

Within the white community African Americans wasn??™t welcomed so they declined at doing any banking. They would have an redline drawn on the map so that they would know where not to go get loans for housing. This act will paralyze the housing market.

Glass ceiling, glass walls, and glass escalator came about under the fact that usually women have to work extra hard to get where she wanted or deserved to be in corporate world. Double jeopardy play an part when the felons had to serve time in prison, probation and or parole, and pay full payments on restitution but still had no right to vote. In institutional discrimination the African Americans was kept has a disadvantaged unlike others when it comes down to jobs public offices, colleges, corporate America and many other things.

When it comes down to identify African Americans and United States culture that has mainstream I would say they both are. Understanding what African American went through from the time frame of slavery unto now. Even in today??™s world, I still see African Americans being discriminated on, up down, segregated and more. I can say that times has changed from when my grandparents grew up until the time I??™m growing up.

Ethnic Groups and Discrimination

I am told that part of my ethnic ancestry is of Irish decent. I do not identify with this ethnicity or culture, but the idea that I am in some small way Irish does fascinate me. Irish immigration to North America began as early as the 17th century. During this period some came for financial advancement and the enticement of free land in colonial times (Schaefer, 2011), and a larger amount came for more religious freedom (Irish Diaspora, 2005). The Irish were the largest group of immigrants during the colonial period after the English (Schaefer, 2011). Probably the most notable wave of Irish immigration came in the middle of the 19th century during the time of Ireland??™s Potato Famine (Irish Diaspora, 2005). Starting in 1820, the earliest immigration records existing, around five million Irish immigrants were admitted for residence to the United States. In 2006, the number of American??™s claiming Irish Ancestry was 34.5 million, which is around nine times more than Ireland itself (Unknown, 2006)
Irish immigrants faced prejudice, an unforced, but financially dependent segregation, and a fair amount of racism. Irish immigrants faced prejudice from the Americans in a number of very public ways. The derogatory terms of ???Mick???, ???potato-head???, ???bog hopper,??? or ???croppie,??? were common slang to describe the half -starved famine immigrants (Stevens, 2004). Paddy and Bridget were often used in a derogatory manner to mean an Irish man or woman. The Irish were portrayed in political cartoons of the time as simian, or ape-like people often drunken, or depicted as stupid, and criminalistic (Haug, 2003). The Irish arrived without the education and skills to attain jobs in anything but the grunt jobs often performed by the ???freed Blacks??? at the time. A few instances of newspaper want ads reporting ???No Irish Need Apply??? at the end of their advertisement, although they were not as common an occurrence as is popular belief (Jensen, 2002).
Segregation was common and existed for a few reasons. Newly landed immigrants often stayed in the cities and ports in which they landed. They searched out the ???Irish quarter??? and found people from the same area where they had lived in Ireland. They wanted to somewhat recreate the close-knit communities that they had enjoyed in their homeland (Gavin, 2000). Another reason for the segregation is the lack of resources and money of the incoming Irish immigrants. Many immigrants found themselves in filthy, rat infested tenements, cellars, backrooms and hovels with no means to live elsewhere. With the lack of proper sanitary conditions, disease was prevalent in those areas (Kenny, 2008). This helped fuel the prejudice and racism that was already prevalent.
A great deal of the racism directed toward the Irish had a basis in religion. Many of the Irish Immigrants of the famine time were Roman Catholic. Americans were very anti-Catholic for fear that the new arrivals would not be loyal to America, but to the church in Rome (Kenny, 2008). The fear was that the papacy would threaten America??™s political independence. This fear translated into a general fear of the Irish (Gavin, 2000).
Irish immigrants were subjected to a dual labor market because they had very little education or skills or there was a lack of jobs that they were skilled for. Many immigrants were very poor and took any jobs that they could find to try to support themselves (Gavin, 2000)
Double Jeopardy applied to a majority of the immigrants in the famine era. Many were of the Catholic faith, and because anti-Catholic sentiment was high, they faced the prejudice of not only being Irish, but being Catholic as well (Gavin, 2000).
I do not identify with the Irish culture at all really. I consider myself an American and I was raised to think of myself that way. I find it interesting, however, to learn about the Irish exodus to America and the struggles that they faced.

Kenny, Kevin. (2008) Irish Immigrants in the United States. Retrieved on September 16, 2010 from
http://www.america.gov/st/peopleplace-english/2008/February/20080307131416ebyessedo0.6800043.html
Irish Diaspora. (2005). In Immigration and Asylum from 1900 to Present. Retrieved from:
http://www.credoreference.com/entry/abcmigrate/irish_diaspora
Unknown (2006) Facts for Features: Irish American Heritage Month (March) & St. Patricks Day.
Retrieved on September 15,2010 from: http://www.census.gov/newsroom/releases/archives/facts_for_features_special_editions/cb06-ff04-2.html
Stevens, Peter F. (2004) The Boston Irish Reporter. Dorchester, Mass. Vol. 15, Issue. 2; pg. 12
Haug, Christina. (2003) The Stereotyping of the Irish Immigrant in 19th Century Periodicals. Retrieved
September 16, 2010 from http://www.victoriana.com/Irish/IrishPoliticalCartoons.htm
Richard Jensen. (2002) “No Irish Need Apply”:A Myth of Victimization Journal of Social History 36.2
405-429 Retrieved on September 15, 2010 from: http://tigger.uic.edu/~rjensen/no-irish.htm
Gavin, Phillip. (2000). Gone to America. Irish Potato Famine. Retrieved on September 16, 2010
from: http://www.historyplace.com/worldhistory/famine/america.htm

Bicameralism

The United States legislative branch of government is made up of two branches. This is a requisite of the Constitution in Article I. The two branches consists of a House of Representatives and a Senate. The two elements here are key to the passing of legislation. Legislation cannot pass Congress without passing the House and the Senate.
Of the two branches, the Senate is of equal proportion among the states. Each state is represented by two senators elected by the people. Senators must be at least 30 years old, a citizen of the United States for at least 9 years, and a resident of the state they represent. They serve terms of 6 years and are elected every 2 years so that a third of the Senate is always up for election. Until 1913, senators were elected by each state legislation. The House of Representatives represented in Congress by the population of each state but this number was capped off at 435 in 1911. They also have elections every two years but the terms are also for 2 years. Therefore, the entire House is up for re-election every two years. A member of the House must be at least 25 years old, a citizen for at least 7 years, and a resident of the state in which their district is located. Both branches share similar powers but other powers are distinct. The Senate has the unique responsibility of ratifying treaties and by a two-thirds vote. It also confirms presidential appointments such as federal judges, ambassadors, and executive branch officials. The only major appointment that needs approval by the House is for the vice presidency in the event it becomes vacant and the president has to nominate a new one. Some of the share duties are that both branches must vote by a two-thirds margin to propose constitutional amendments, and both sides must agree by majority to declare war. Also the government cannot raise nor spend money without the approval of both chambers. One distinct power that the House has is that it can impeach an executive or judicial branch member by a majority vote. The accused can then be removed by the Senate with a two-thirds vote.
Bicameralism allows for a more comprehensive representation and assures more sustainability. Especially in a country where there is rapid change. Supporters of bicameralism feel that if there were only one branch of government that it would jeopardize the integrity of our government. That in time, it would be ruled by an upper class with more money to manipulate it with. With two branches it also allows for one branch to somewhat watch over the other. One does not allow the other to become more powerful than the other; or just overpowering in general. Bicameralism offers balance for a well rounded government.
The case against bicameralism comes from the argument that there is no real advantage to having a two part system in place. Supporters for unicameralism feel that bicameralism is more prone to impurities and malfunctions. They also feel that it would be a greater problem to repair in the event that it falls apart. So the main argument seems to be more of the fact that they are against bicameralism as opposed to for unicameralism.
In the end, Bicameralism seems to be working. It has not fallen apart. If there are any faults or cracks, it is setup so that the two branches can repair it. It also allows the people to have a voice in the matter by having representation in Congress. If one chamber feels strong about one issue, it does need the support of the other. For the most part bicameralism has been fair and has achieved balance.

Ethnic Groups and Discrimination

Ethnic Groups and Discrimination

Culture Diversity
June 20, 2010

I identify with the African American ethnic group and that is why I chose to this group. African Americans have faced many obstacles over the years such as, prejudice, segregation and racism. In this essay I will also tell how they immigrated to the United States.
African Americans also referred to as Black Americans or Afro-Americans. Most African Americans are descendants of captive Africans who survived slavery. Immigration originated in Africa. Thousands of years ago Africans made their way to a place where no humans lived at that time, which is now Europe. Most African Americans was forced from their homes. Some were sold as prisoners of war or kidnapped by slave traders such as European or American. The first African slaves were brought to Jamestown, Virginia in 1619 and were treated as indentured servants, which is a worker, laborer or tradesman under contract to an employer for a fixed period of time in exchange for their necessities such as: food, clothing and transportation. 10 to 12 million Africans were transported to the western hemisphere. Some came from the West African coast and others from Madagascar and East Africa. Some Africans died off quickly due to diseases, lack of food and medical care. By 1700, there were 25,000 slaves in the American colonies. During the 18th century the slave trade took off across the Atlantic. The shipment of black African slaves became very harsh. During the migration, they were stacked on top of one another in ships while enduring prejudice and cruel treatment. Many got sick and died. Between the years of 1910 and 1920 African Americans migrated to Omaha. They made up 5 percent of the population. By 1920 the rates of blacks increased which became alarming to the white population which caused segregation.
African Americans suffered tremendously when it came to segregation. According to the Merriam Webster, segregation is a separation or isolation of a race, class or ethnic group. African Americans were banned from restaurants, hotels, hospitals and they were not allowed to vote. If they wanted to vote they had to take and pass a literacy test to see if they could read and they also had to pay unlike the whites. This brings up Jim Crow which originated around 1830, when a white show performer colored his face with charcoal paste and danced and sang lyrics to the song ???Jump Jim Crow???. He did this after he saw an elderly man singing and dancing. Jim Crow became a racial slur for blacks used by many whites. African Americans suffered brutal acts such as lynching, mob terror and riots. They even endured dismemberment, being dragged to death behind carts and they were also burned. They were also humiliated. The whites sold tickets so other whites could watch the lynchings. They even brought their children. They also took pictures with the burned bodies of African Americans and also used them as souvenirs. African Americans never got the same respect as the whites. Instead of being addressed as, ???Mr.??? or ???Ms??? they got degraded by the terms of ???boy,??? ???girl,??? ???uncle,??? ???auntie,??? and of the term ???nigger???.
African Americans also had to deal with affirmative action. Minorities and women remain economically disadvantaged: the black unemployment rate remains over twice the white unemployment rate; 97 percent of senior managers in Fortune 1000 corporations are white males; (28) in 1992, 33.3 percent of blacks and 29.3 percent of Hispanics lived in poverty, compared to 11.6 percent of whites. (29) In 1993, Hispanic men were half as likely as white men to be managers or professionals; (30) only 0.4 percent of senior management positions in Fortune 1000 industrial and Fortune 500 service industries are Hispanic. (31) http://clinton2.natra.gov/WH/EOP/html/aa/aa04.html
We, as African Americans have been and are still going through a lot, rather if it??™s racism or prejudice. I have experienced a little prejudice from a different race but I have also overcome that situation. I can honestly say I treat people like they should be treated and I expect the same. But I am so glad that we, as a society has overcome the negativity and can come together as one. I do identify with the African American culture more because that ???culture??? is who I am.

References

http://clinton2.nara.gov/WH/EOP/html/aa/aa04.html
http://www.jimcrowhistory.org/history/surviving.htm
http://www.meriam-webster.com/dictionary/segregation

Bicameral Im

Bicameral Images reveal our two selves.
Okay, I didnt make up the term. The term was coined by psychologist Julian Jaynes, who presented the idea in his 1976 book The Origin of Consciousness in the Breakdown of the Bicameral Mind. But it fits so well in describing an extremely interesting phenomenon that many people may not realize — each of us is really two people. No, I dont mean in the traditional sense of having an alter-ego, or a good and bad side. Nor do I mean that we are all schizoids. I mean we are literally two thinking beings residing in the same body.
Early hominids had one mind. It was what psychologists call a “reactive” mind. It only exhibited what we would consider higher thought processes when it was presented with a problem. It didnt plan for the future or imagine how to improve things like a dwelling, a tool or escaping a predator. It only reacted to situations that happened in the “here and now.” But, according to Janes, a sudden improvement happened when the human brain decided to double its efforts in thought processing. Now, although you and I have one brain, each half of it has the ability to act independently at the same time.
Like the infomercials say — “Wait! Theres more!”
Follow along on this adventure. I wont disappoint either of you!
About ten years ago, I saw an interesting exercise in which a college psychology professor had taken photographs of her students, made copies that were flipped left to right, and then had them cut in half vertically. She reassembled the images using the two similar sides of the face.

Which Nixon would you buy a used car from
Nixons left + left at the far left.
The center image is the normal, original portrait.
Nixons right + right is on the right.
[A quick way to do this is to place a small mirror perpendicular to a photograph showing a good front face view. As you look into the mirror you can form a whole face from the reflection of either side.]
The composite pictures were humorous. Although the individuals were easily recognizable, their facial expressions seemed to express exaggerated emotions, like anger, suspicion, or happiness — and occasionally a look of total blankness. Even more interesting was the observation that the two sides of the same face were often so different. Why
This exercise seemed to suggest that, while a handful of people have symmetrical faces, a vast majority of us do not. Also it raised the possibility that each side of our face could express different emotions at the same time! Subsequent research into facial expressions and the workings of the human brain has offered an interesting theory that not only explains this left and right difference in facial expressions, but could help us to understand our “other self.”
First, some science.
Well keep this light and uncomplicated. Our brain, like the rest of our anatomy, is made up of two halves, a left brain a right brain. Theres a big fold that goes from front to back in our brain, essentially dividing it into two distinct and separate parts. Well, almost separate. They are connected to each other by a thick cable of nerves at the base of each brain. This sole link between the two giant processors is called the corpus collosum. Think of it as an Ethernet cable or network connection between two incredibly fast and immensely powerful computer processors, each running different programs from the same input.

The left side of our body is “wired” to the right side of our brain, and vice versa. For whatever reason nature did this cross-over, it applies even to our eyes, which process a majority of their sensory data on opposite sides of the brain.
We can thank Nobel Prize Winner (1981) Roger Sperry for this next contribution. Sperry conducted what are sometimes called the “split-brain” experiments. Heres how it went: A patient suffering from uncontrolled seizures had an area of his brain removed by surgery in an attempt to control his illness. This area just happened to be the corpus collosum, which was suspected of having developed lesions (short circuits).
Following his surgery, Sperrys patient seemed completely normal — almost. A series of tests were conducted where each “half” of the patient was isolated from the other. Different visual and tactile information could then be presented to the patients left or right side, without the other side knowing. The results were astounding.
With their communications link severed, each side of the patients brain was functioning independently. Although this did not prevent his ability to walk, talk and eat, some unexpected findings were encountered in some of the higher brain functions when each side was examined independently of the other.
The right hand and eye could name an object, such as a pencil, but the patient could not explain what it was used for. When shown to the left hand and eye, the patient could explain and demonstrate its use, but could not name it. Further studies showed that various functions of thought are physically separated and localized to a specific area on either the left or right side of the human brain. This functional map is consistent for an estimated 70 to 95 percent of us.
The main theme to emerge… is that there appear to be two modes of thinking, verbal and nonverbal, represented rather separately in left and right hemispheres respectively and that our education system, as well as science in general, tends to neglect the nonverbal form of intellect. What it comes down to is that modern society discriminates against the right hemisphere.
-Roger Sperry (1973)
Upon completing the map, it was becoming clear to researchers that each side of the brain had a characteristic way that it both interpreted the world and reacted to it. The chart below will help illustrate the characteristics which are known to reside on each side of our brains.
LEFT BRAIN FUNCTIONS

uses logic
detail oriented
facts rule
words and language
present and past
math and science
can comprehend
knowing
acknowledges
order/pattern perception
knows object name
reality based
forms strategies
practical
safe | RIGHT BRAIN FUNCTIONS

uses feeling
“big picture” oriented
imagination rules
symbols and images
present and future
philosophy & religion
can “get it” (i.e. meaning)
believes
appreciates
spatial perception
knows object function
fantasy based
presents possibilities
impetuous
risk taking |
Our personality can be thought of as a result of the degree to which these left and right brains interact, or, in some cases, do not interact. It is a simplification to identify “left brain” types who are very analytical and orderly. We likewise certainly know of the artistic, unpredictability and creativity of “right brain” types. But each of us draws upon specific sides of our brain for a variety of daily functions, depending on such things as our age, education and life experiences. The choices which brain is in control of which situations, is what forges our personalities and determines our character.
Experiments show that most children rank highly creative (right brain) before entering school. Because our educational systems place a higher value on left brain skills such as mathematics, logic and language than it does on drawing or using our imagination, only ten percent of these same children will rank highly creative by age 7. By the time we are adults, high creativity remains in only 2 percent of the population.
The Brain and Intelligence
There is a known correlation between brain size and intellectual ability. Homo Erectus, our distant ancestor, had a brain size of about 1200 cc. Modern Homo Sapiens have an average brain of about 1400 cc. Oddly, the Neanderthal people who failed to evolve into humans already had a brain size of 1500 cc — larger than modern man. Obviously then, its not only how big the brain is as much as how it is configured. This is further evidenced by the fact that we have known genius brains measuring as small as 1000 cc. and as large as 2000 cc.
Increasing brain size was a risky endeavor for human evolution. The brain requires a highly stable temperature and a supply of high protein and energy. One quarter of our caloric intake is used for brain energy consumption.
The War of the Brains
The two brains not only see the world in vastly different ways but, in our current society, the left side just “doesnt get” what the right side is all about. It tends to dismiss anything significant coming into consciousness from its “flaky” cranial twin. Sometimes two sides can actually disagree, resulting in our perception of emotional turmoil from the expressive protests of right brain.
Our conscious mind can only focus on data from one brain at a time. We can switch from one side to the other very quickly (with our corpus collosum intact) but thats not always the most efficient way to act and eventually ultimate authority to enter consciousness is delegated to one brain or the other. In our modern world, this battle is almost always won by the left brain.
It appears that most people will never reach their maximum potential because of compromises that have been made between these two governing bodies. Sometimes skills which the right brain can perform better are routinely handled, with less skill, by the left brain. Ideally, both brains work together in people with optimum mental ability. This coordinating ability may be the key to superior intellectual abilities. In most people, however, the left brain takes control, choosing logic, reasoning and details over imagination, holistic thinking and artistic talent.
Methods have been devised to “shut off” the left brain, allowing the right side to have its say. Creative writing courses often use this method to combat “writers block.” The logical left side is easily bored by lack of input and tends to “doze off” during such activities as meditation (repeating a mantra or word over and over) or in sensory deprivation environments. The right brain is then able to “sneak” into our consciousness, filling our minds with emotional and visual vignettes and freely associated images. All too quickly, though, the left brain will assert itself and dispense with these irrational images, asserting its Spock-like logical dominance and the right brain will have to be content to find expression in dreams.
Bicameral Images
Facial expressions are nothing more than skin and muscle being pulled or flexed according to the control of the brain. Our facial nerves effectively divide our face into two separate sides, each controlled by the opposite side brain. Facial expressions are the earliest form of communication. Experiments conducted on all ages and cultures around the globe have revealed that there is universal agreement to some basic emotional facial gestures. Take a moment to see how well you can determine the emotional content of these selected expressions.

Look at the facial expressions depicted above.
Write the corresponding letter that represents your interpretation of
each of the following emotions:
HAPPY, DISGUST, CONCERNED, SURPRISED,
SUSPICIOUS, SAD, HORRIFIED, And ANGRY

How did you do Most people will get a high score, although the subtle differences between horror and surprise can cause for some confusion.
I thought it was interesting to note that an emotion like suspicion appears to be composed of two emotions: the left logical brain shows anger while the right side shows sadness. Clearly there is room for much more research into our feelings and expressions. While we await the next detailed map (left brain) of our inner self, we can freely speculate on the meanings (right brain) that we impart from our observations.

Ethnic Groups and Discrimination

I have never given a great deal of thought in regards to my ethnic background. I cannot recall any of my family members ever discussing any issues of how whether or not any of our ancestors came to America from other countries. I have heard that on my mother??™s side of the family there is a distant relationship to President Martin VanBuren, but the authenticity of that has never been validated. I never knew anyone on my father??™s side of the family; his mother and step-father were killed in an automobile accident when I was an infant. While my dad never knew his biological father we do know that his ethnic background was English and I have chosen to research this part of my ethnic background.
Most of the research I was able to locate on English American immigrants indicated that the English were basically the first non-Native Americans to settle in areas which would later become the United States. The first permanent English settlement was Jamestown, VA which was founded in 1607 and later Plymouth and Massachusetts Bay in 1620-1622 (Hanft, S. 2009). Native Americans often attacked the new settlers and between the years of 1622-1644 some 850 colonists were killed. (Chao & Spencer, 1990) This information might cause an individual to imagine what the prejudice, segregation, and racism must have been like between the Native Americans and the English settlers.
I did not find any definite indications that the English immigrants were directly affected by any forms of discrimination. The majority of the research indicated that many Englishmen came to America to exercise their own religion while others seemed to be drawn by the economic opportunities and cheap land. (Hanft, S. 2009) The English immigrants brought a wide variety of tradesmen, craftsmen, and merchants to America. In later years, after the revolution here in the United States, the English seemed to experience less difficulty adapting to American life.
In 1606, a group of puritan clergy held a meeting to discuss the separation of the Church of England. The majority of these men were regretted by the Church meaning they were unemployed for delivering a message to the congregation differing from the Church doctrine. The outcome of the meeting determined the group would relocate to the Netherlands. (Spurr, 1998) The puritans stayed in Holland until the year 1620 at which time the leaders decided to move the congregation to North America. By moving to North America, they could worship the religious principles set by the elders. ???The earliest settlers to come to North America mainly for religious reasons were the Pilgrims who settled in Plymouth Bay, Massachusetts.??? (Powell, 2005)
It seems as though religion was one of the first prejudices. The puritans or colonist government seemed to be a sort of dictator ship. It appeared that if groups were of a different understanding of the bible then that of the puritans these individuals were not welcome. In 1656, some of the first Quaker missionaries came to the colonies. Boston quickly jailed and deported them, but many more missionaries replaced them. Eventually Massachusetts instituted punishments for preaching or sympathizing with Quakers. Some of the punishment or penalties were imprisonment, to whipping, bodily mutilation, and, in 1658, death by hanging. Persecution reached its height in 1659??“61, when four Quakers were hanged. (Jaycox, 2002)
As the colonies continued to grow, the different religious groups learned to reside together. There were still many prejudices and segregation among the leaders but battles with the Native Americans and the new settlers continued to exist. Eventually, over time, missionaries were able to communicate with the Native American Indians. Some of the Native Americans were converted over to puritan groups and one of the requirements for this conversion was to have the Indians dress in the common dress of the colonies (Jaycox, 2002). Today we see that the majority of the remaining Native Americans dress the same as does almost everyone else in our country.
As I consider the question of whether or not I identify with the English ethnic group, I am really uncertain. Because I grew up not knowing anything about my ethnic background, I can??™t really say that I identify with the English any more than I do with any other ethnic group. I am not the type of person who focuses on what country someone is from or what color their skin is, or even what shape their eyes are. I focus more on the person they are inside, how kind or thoughtful someone might be. I do think that the English had a great deal of influence in many locations of our country, especially in the areas of the original colonies. Taking into consideration that the Revolutionary War occurred because our country wanted to separate from the English crown, we still show a good amount of English influence in our nation today.

Bibliography

Annoted Bibliography

DEA hopeful over drop in cocaine (Leinwand, USA TODAY 2007) Retrieved
September 13, 2007 from
http://www.usatoday.com/news/nation/2007-09-12-cocaineinside_N.htm

This is a very good link because it talks about how the price for cocaine was so small and recently went up. It doesn??™t just say that it gives you actual numbers. It even has a picture of 30,000 lbs of cocaine that was seized in one day.
Axia College (found on student website)
Mexican Drug Wars (2009) http://140.234.1.9:8080/EPSessionID=bf89bcccb52752b660f63e627a9afc/EPHost=www.2facts.com/EPPath/icof_story.aspxPIN=i1400260&term=cocaine+drug+wars
May 22, 2009
I really like this link because it??™s recent enough to where our president Obama is speaking on the topic. Many people think that the drug wars with Mexico aren??™t a big deal, but it is and this article explains how. A good percent is shows is that in 2000 only 66% of cocaine in America came from Mexico and now 90% since 2007 so it??™s risen a lot.

By the Numbers: Mexican Drug Wars(2009)
http://140.234.1.9:8080/EPSessionID=c6f2f840d1339644b47b6c378baedd0/EPHost=www.2facts.com/EPPath/icof_story.aspxPIN=in141001&term=cocaine+drug+wars
May 22, 2009
This source just shows all the different numbers having to do with the drug wars with Mexico, it talks about money and perecentages.

Drug Legalization (2001)
http://140.234.1.9:8080/EPSessionID=b07140b9c7487e9c48dd1dad0e9188/EPHost=www.2facts.com/EPPath/icof_story.aspxPIN=i0101670&term=cocaine+drug+wars
January 5, 2001

This talks about efforts trying to legalize drugs so that the wars don??™t happen. It has good information as well such as New York makes around 150 arrest per day due to drugs.

Ethicsa

Running head: CURRENT EVENT

Current Event and Ethical Theory Danielle Decker MGT/216 April.5-2010 Francis Marshall

CURRENT EVENT Current Event and Ethical Theory Ethical dilemmas may compromise ones moral beliefs; it is often an unsettling feeling that something is amiss. Ethical reasoning consists of making decisions (Nelson & Trevino, 2006) and people make decisions based on their moral values. Each individuals socioeconomic status builds the belief system of moral values. Oftentimes what is “wrong” is associated with committing a “sin” or breaking the law. Each person grows to learn what not to do for fear of punishment and often strives to do what is “right” to seek the reward. The Federal law reins the supreme law of the land and States laws apply only within the borders of the State. Acting in an ethically correct manner, respected citizens are expected to abide by the law. The complexities of the laws have disabled otherwise respected citizens from abiding by all laws. The prohibition of marijuana for medical purposes has become an ethical dilemma for many California residents. Federally the drug is still a Schedule 1, which has the requirements of high potential for abuse and no accepted medical use. Federally marijuana is

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considered dangerous and no prescriptions can be written for the drug. It may be understood that possessing, cultivating, using, and selling marijuana is strictly against Federal Law. For those that reside in California these laws may seem so farfetched and even unethical. California passed Proposition 215, which allowed patients to use marijuana for medicinal purposes. Senate Bill 420 furthered the rights for patients to the availability of medicine. Under these laws patients may cultivate up to six mature plants and possess up to eight ounces of dried cannabis flowers. To become a patient one must be a resident of the State of California, obtain proper identification from the DMV, and seek a doctor who will write a recommendation letter. With more than 1,000 collectives in Los Angeles country alone the cannabis industry is of growing curiosity. It is not ethically “wrong” to allow sick people availability to medication. If

CURRENT EVENT someone has AIDs and cannot eat, but can ingest their medication that stimulates their appetite they will be able to eat a little more. For many people it seems morally right to have this medication available to those that see the benefits.

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The conflict between state and Federal laws is an ethical dilemma in current events. It may appear that pharmaceutical companies are in business to make a profit. Doctors are bribed to prescribe new medications to patients. The price of prescription drugs continues to increase at the cost of the patients checkbooks. It is federally legal to pay for the prescription drugs that may cause stroke, heart attack, seizures, or even death, but it is not legal to be in possession of a plant. In the past research experiments on marijuana were also prohibited, unless it was to prove the negative effects. Former President Nixon declared the “War on Drugs” and accompanied his campaign with such propaganda as the 1930s movie “Reefer Madness. ” Ironically there has been no known cause of death by marijuana. It may even be safe to say it is nearly impossible to overdose on marijuana. If marijuana is over consumed the person is likely to take a long nap and may be hungry. For many terminally ill patients developing the side effects of sleep and hunger are only positive. Collectives are run primarily by patients for patients keeping in mind the moral issues in business. Due to “sales” being illegal, California collectives are nonprofit based organizations. Patients donate to their collective of choice and in return receive medicine for their ailments. People work “collectively” to help one another to acquire a higher standard of living even in the face of death. Steele Smith and his wife Theresa Smith were operating their collective in full compliance with the state laws when the DEA came knocking at their door. Steele suffers from a rare disease, which affects his digestive track with many ulcers. His wife took over the role as his caretaker and quit her job when her husband became very ill. The Smiths hired a young man

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who suffers from elephant man syndrome to help in the operations of the collective. The Smiths also welcomed a homeless man into their home out of the kindness of their hearts. All four of them are currently facing a mandatory minimum sentencing of at least 10 years in federal prison. Many marijuana arrests are because of compounded charges. However, these are not the circumstances in the Smiths case. In hearing them tell their story they are honest, law abiding citizens, which involved themselves with medical marijuana because they believe marijuana had saved Steeles life. Unable to take pills due to his condition Steele turned to medical marijuana for some relief. For the involvement with marijuana the charges are being placed upon the four individuals; keeping in mind the Smiths were in complete compliance with California State laws. Currently there is no defense for medical marijuana allowed in federal court. It makes sense why “users” of marijuana are often paranoid. The most courageous aspect of this event is that the Smiths did not take the “bargain” the court offered them, but decided to fight the case and defend them against this wrong-doing. There has yet to be a case in federal court that allowed the defense of “medical”; Steeles case could be the first. If ethics is about making decisions and questioning what doesnt “feel” right, then the Smiths have already show great courage is standing by their values. When the law contradicts its self in terms of ethical dilemmas, it is up to the citizens to decide on what is right. Unfortunately, the judicial system has the final say in the verdict, but there is no regret in fighting for what is right. The Steeles case may break the mold of the federal court system and pave the way for future considerations for medical as a defense in court. Many other cases exist of innocent people being convicted of crimes and facing serious sentences for their involvement with medical marijuana. Many find prosecution for possession an incredible waste of resources. In places such as Oakland the citizens voted to decriminalize

CURRENT EVENT medical marijuana is an effort to allocate resources for more serious crimes. In November 2010 there will be an initiative to vote to tax and regulate cannabis for adult consumption. The restrictions on marijuana will be those similar to alcohol with respect to keep away from children. This ballot has the potential to raise significant revenue for California and opens the

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possibilities for new businesses. The ethical concerns of marijuana are changing and being aware of the change in industry will further the insight of the potential good this plant has to offer. Being morally aware of the laws enacted or will be enacted is important in being a responsible ethical person. The tragedy of 9/11 occurred nearly 9 years ago, yet the laws passed during that time of crisis are still active today. It is frightening to see that many people do not know what the Patriot Act is or how the fundamental freedoms are constricted. Many young adults do not know the Bill of Rights, nor do they know how to properly exercise their rights. Law officials know how to acquire information from people and people ignore their right to not self incriminate. Although the law may have been designed to be ethically correct, time has a way of changing societys view on what is “right.” Slaves were people too, but were not considered citizens. Women worked everyday just as a man did, but her place was in the home. It is not ethical to discriminate against another culture, but people have their prejudices. A community may adapt to a set of moral rules to follow and live by. It is the individual perception of the value and circumstance for those moral rules that differ. “The deontological tradition holds that what makes an action right is not the sum of its consequences but the fact that is conforms to moral law” (DeGeorge, 2005, p.81). No one answer is right and not every action need punishment. Each person perceives both right and wrong differently. Conflicts will arise concerning ethical reasoning for decisions and it is likely negotiation will follow. The criteria for an effective

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negotiation are quality, harmony, and efficiency (Schermerhorn & Hunt, 2008, p.352). In order to invoke change it is crucial to negotiate. One must be willing to hold their ground as well as be willing to compromise on the outcome. The prohibition of marijuana has been going on for decades with only slow change to show for it. Persistence will inflict change and in a democracy there is power in numbers. Virtues, values, and moral concepts are all a matter of perception. In business the individual will respond to moral issues, especially ones that compromise ones own ethical code. It is how the individual chooses to respond that is truly important. People face ethical dilemmas each day and may rarely notice it unless it is pointed out by another. People compromise their values often in business because it is for the “good” of the company. External social pressures influence business ethics by pharmaceutical companies bribing doctors to prescribe the new medications; prohibiting and even imprisoning patients for the cultivation of their own medicine. People see these current issues in their communities or personal lives and want change. It does not seem ethically right to spend state revenue on prosecuting medical patients that abide by state law, whereas there are still child molesters that roam the streets. It is however morally wrong to willing give up ones rights when caught in the hands of the law. Each individual is socialized to believe a set of ethical rules. Ethical turmoil exists and there is no right or wrong answer, there is only perception.

CURRENT EVENT References DeGeorge, R.T. (2005). Business Ethics (6th ed.). Retrieved

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fromhttps://ecampus.phoenix.edu/content/eBookLibrary2/content/TQC.aspxassetdataid =lf86b4b2-4815-429a-b34d-3b4769707938&assetmetaid=01d8d6dl-0005-4d85-8b3115d31f4151cb. Hunt, J.G., Osborn, R.N., & Schermerhorn, J.R. (2008). Organizational Behavior (10th ed.). Wiley, New York, NY. Retrieved from: https://ecampus.phoenix.edu/classroom/ic/classroom.aspx.

Nelson, K.A., & Trevino, L.K. (2006). Managing Business Ethics: Straight Talk About How To Do It Right (4th ed.). Retrieved fronihttps://ecampus.phoenix.edu/content/eBookLibrary2/content/TOC.aspxassetdataid =53912428-e881-4398-a22a-5b331823b24c&assetmetaid=8d653737-8ba7-4b71-8fdf99db0620d41d. Robbins, S.P., & Judge, T.A. (2009). Organizational Behavior (13th ed.). Retrieved from https://ecampus.phoenix.edu/content/eBookLibrary2/content/eReader.aspx.

Biblical Models of a Healthy Marriage and Family Life

Describe the biblical models of a healthy marriage and family life, and compare contrast these with models prevalent in contemporary society. Support your findings from a variety of literature sources

Within this assessment I??™ll depict the biblical models of a healthy marriage and family life; compared to other models prevalent in today??™s contemporary culture. Within the Christian family the importance of God reins supreme within a contemporary family in most cases, it??™s another god the takes prevalence; in most cases this is the reason why marriages, don??™t withstand the pressure of time.

Firstly, we should examine what the biblical model for marriage is, in order to gain a perspective of God??™s divine intention for marriage; the most significant scripture verses for Christian marriage within a Christian belief are; Jesus Christ as the God head, (Eph. 4:13??“16; 1 Timothy 2 1-15) ; do not be unequally yoked with unbelievers, (2 Corinthians 6:14); the husband as spiritual head of the family, (Eph. 5:23); love one another, and preserve spiritual unity in peace, (Eph. 4:1??“3).

Balswick and Balswick, (2008) stated; that they build on the marriage and family relationships on four sequential but nonlinear stages which are covenant, grace, empowering and intimacy. They continue to say that that the family relationship will be either dynamic and maturing or dying and stagnant. The underling core is unconditional love.

So, why is it important that within the healthy family context that covenant, grace, empowering and intimacy are functioning, if we once again address scripture we find that the greatest gift is love (1 John 4:7) love encompasses all of the above (1 Corinthians 13).

It???s predominant that the relationships within the marriage continues to flourish under the covenant, without the covenant their is no sound structure in which to build the foundations of a healthy family (Eph. 5:33).

God??™s connection within the marriage is the area of devotion, with the couple it???s discipleship and a display of faithfulness to God and each other. As the relationship progresses it requires the grace and love of God intertwining together their commitment to each other. This then becomes the foundation on which to build the family. In such a marriage, life-long durability will reflect the constancy of God??™s love to his covenant family (Loewen, Howard. 1980).

Within the boundaries of covenant, grace, empowerment, intimacy and unconditional love the family will nurture and develop strong relationships, these fundamental qualities of acceptance, esteem and interpersonal communication skills will launch each individual into growth and maturity in their prospective position within the family unit. (Balswick and Balswick, 2008)

Mostly strong Christian families are protected from their trials but saying that they seem to manage their trials with a strength rooted in their faith, this faith is enhanced by their involvement within their church family. Churches whose framework instils values, unconditional love and commitment within a sense of community. Within most churches there is a wealth of cross generational relationships that are supporting and guiding one another within a bigger family. (Garland, D 1999)

Families are a variety of households and different family systems. Unfortunately, within today??™s society Christian values and morals are becoming obsolete, culture is addressing many changes in regards to family systems example; only child families; large families; single parent families; blended families; same sex families; adoptive parent families; and grandparent families each has there own set of value and principles, constraints and cultural restrictions.(Berryman; Power and Hollitt).

Families have deteriorated immensely from God??™s intentions for the family. The current world situations indicate that the family has lost, or almost lost, many of the meanings that once gave it authority and status. It??™s economic, educational, protective, recreational, status-giving, and religious functions are displaced elsewhere in society. (Kostenberger,)

The outcomes are new models and positions for each member of the family. Parental influences are destroyed and they have to now contend with the influence of external subcultures. Some marriages are now influenced by the positions placed on it to survive as both husband and wife take on major roles outside the family home.

The position as head of the home has changed with new roles becoming more evident through family breakdown. Now the modern marriage/family ???nuclear family??? bound together only by its devotion to each other. Another title for this family is ???companionship family??? because the intimate interpersonal relationship is its primary function. The families focus is friendship instead of loyalty to each other as in the more traditional, institutional families. (Kostenberger,)

The family is under siege because today??™s society is free to do as it pleases without considering the other person they are also effected by both domestic and exterior dynamics, degeneration of society and disconnections of families. (Kostenberger,)
This dilemma provides an appropriate context for hearing again the central biblical themes which relate to marriage and the family. (Kostenberger,) (Jer. 3:14).

???Marriage is a divine institution not a mere human invention. Granted if marriage were no more than a human invention or a social experiment, then different types of marriage could have equal value. But that is not the case. Marriage is God??™s creation and that means that God defines what it is. As human beings, we do not have the right to decide the kind of marital relationship we want??” although that doesnt stop us from trying.??? Lowery, Fred (2002,page 6)

In conclusion, we need to ask is God??™s design for marriage becoming an alternative. Within the biblical stance marriage is the utmost expression of covenant not only within the marriage, but also in our relationship with God. Christian marriage stands out rightly the ultimate gift not only to each other but as the platform for the children of these parents who uphold the covenant. It also speaks incredibly to the community where the desolation of marriage is so prominent.

This marriage statement becomes a witness and encouragement to others that cry out for guidance. Contemporary culture feels they alone have the resources to survive the realities of modern life. But without God as the centre they are doomed to fail; God covenant must be the foundation if the family is to survive.

When the covenant commitment of marriage is placed within the larger covenant between God and his people, then the sphere of the family will again be a witness to the meaning of covenant commitment. ???Many waters cannot quench love??? (Song of Sol. 8:6).

Bibliography:
Anderson, M. (1988). Counseling Families from a Systems Perspective. Highlights . Retrieved 17 05, 2010, from ERICDIGESTS ORG ERIC Clearinghouse on Counselling and Personnel Services Ann Arbor MI: http://www.ericdigests.org/pre-9211/counseling. html

Balswick, J., & Balswick, J. (2008). The Family a Christian Perspective on the Contempory Home. U S A: Baker Academic.

Berryman, K., Power, R., & Hollitt, S. (n.d.). Retrieved 17 05, 2010, from Socialisation within the Family: http://ehlt.flinders.edu.au/education/DLiT/2002/family/fmily. html

Garland, D. (1999). Family Ministry: A Comprehensive Guide page9. InterVarsity Press.
Kostenberger, A. (n.d.). THE BIBLICAL FRAMEWORK FOR MARRIAGE (Midwestern Lecture #2). Retrieved 17 05, 2010, from http://www.biblicalfoundations.org/pdf/pdfarticles/midwestern_2. PDF

Loewen, H. ( 1980, July). Covenant Love: Theological Reflections on Marriage and the Family Vol. 9 No. 3. 3-10. Retrieved 17 05, 2010, from http://www.directionjournal.org/article/354

Lowery, F. (2002). Covenant Marriage: Staying Together for Life Page 6. Louisiana USA: Howard Publishing Co Inc.

Scripture References:
Eph. 4:13??“16;
1Tim 2 1-15
2 Cor 6:14
Eph. 5:23
Eph. 4:1??“3
1 John 4:7
Eph. 5:33
Jer. 3:14
Song of Sol. 8:6

Ethics

Ethics Reflection
Clyde Pritchett
STR/581
06/30/2010
Doctor Kocharyan

Abstract
In the business world you have rules and several of guidelines that you must abide by in the workplace. There are other guidelines and factors to abide by which determines the personality of the company. These factors are ethics and social responsibility which play an important part in planning your life or for the well being of your business. As a company or companies develop their strategic plan, they must take in consideration of how ethics and social responsibility will impinge on the strategic plan keeping the needs of the stakeholders at the forefront. People and companies make decisions everyday based off of certain actions such as ethical behavior, perspectives and beliefs. In overtime as people and companies continue to practice their ideal ethics and social responsibilities would eventually define the person or the company.

Role of Ethics and Social Responsibility in Strategic Planning
In management ethics are like rules or guidelines to help employees display proper conduct according to the company??™s personal standards and values that the top level management has chosen to define the company. The company should incorporate their chosen beliefs and values within the strategic plan. This will guarantee that their employees will comprehend the rules and be able to make sound ethical decisions. The company??™s values and beliefs are mainly outlined in the mission statement, vision, and philosophy which will give the employees their guidance, purpose, and clear comprehension of the company??™s behavioral belief and decisions decided by the company??™s stakeholders. When the company complies with the overall mission and vision statements it can really assist in setting company goals and strategically plan for the future while maintaining the integrity of the ethics of all core decisions.
Pearson and Robinson stated ???central to the belief that companies should be operated in a socially responsive way for the benefit of all stakeholders is belief that managers will behave in an ethical manner,??? (Pearson & Robinson, 2004,p60). Although a company has certain ethical guidelines there is always a chance for unethical behavior amongst the employees or management. Throughout the years many of top level executives of huge corporations have displayed unethical behavior and violated many of their company policies. These companies??™ executives that have displayed unethical behaviors are Enron, World Com, and sometimes individuals such as Martha Stewart with her insider trading scandal. All employees of a company are obligated to uphold the company??™s image but top level management are held in real high regard to practice all the ethical statutes and social responsibilities of the company. They top level executives are the face of the company so they have a higher responsibility to maintain ethical standards for the stakeholders comfort. When top level management fails to practice ethical behavior; the board of directors reserved the right to vote to have that executive or executives removed from the company. This will view in the public eye that unethical behavior will not be tolerated by anyone whether it be Chief Executive Officer or bottom level manager. In 2002 the Sarbanes-Oxley Act was designed to hold Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer accountable for reports of the company and to recognize that all the information is true and accurate to the best of their ability. If the information on the reports are found to be inaccurate or fraudulent; then the CEO and the CFO have obligation to report the infraction to the auditors or fraud examiners.
The authors of the text state ???social responsibility is a critical consideration for a company??™s strategic decision makers??¦??? (Pearson & Robinson, 2004,p.23). When hiring managers you need to be insured that they are going to be able to act and voice their opinions as you would in your absence. As we know some managers will make decisions based on their self interest instead of the managers and stakeholders interest. The decisions that are made by your managers must be done with the sole interest of the company and the stakeholders to gaurantee profit and the company??™s ability to survive in a competitive market. Company??™s usually put certain parameters in place to give managers more of incetive to make decisions for the overall company such as bonuses and profit sharing. With these incentives being awarded to managers of the company the stakeholders and also stockholders are able to hold managers accountable.
Stockholders are just as important than the everyday stakeholder. The stockholder is on of the many owners of the company because their montarey investment entitles the stockholder a share of the company. The stockholder and stakeholder want good returns on his or her investment, job satisfaction, satisfied vendors and suppliers, goverments seeking law abiding companies, competitors seeking strong competition, responsible citizens and the public seeking a good quality of life (Pearson & Robinson, 2004). The manager also has social responsibility that the consumer is getting impecable service, sensible prices for goods or services, and career openings a fairly advertise to the public. Company??™s ethical and social responsibilities should be practice from top to bottonm on a consistent basis. If everyone is not on the same page or ethical practices are unconsistent your company could be skewed as untrusted and fraudulent.
Ethical Perspectives
The Phoenix MBA program has really enlightened on the importance of ethics, values and social responsibility play in the corporate society. It helps create ownership of decisions and gaurantees that employees conduct during business is ethical by the company standards. When asked to be part of groups throughout the program University Phoenix also place ethical parameters in place such as learning team charter, team log, and university honor code. These rules and standards are applied to every student in the programso that their performance is ethical throughout the MBA program. Unethical behavior and dishonesty would result in probation or dismissal from the program because these stern consequences comfort the stakeholder to assure that University of Phoenix ethical standards are respected by consumers and employees.
Conclusion
Company??™s and individuals must follow some level of ethics and social responsibility to remain successful. The company??™s profits and logevity rely on the ethical and social decisions that are made by the mangers. The improper behavior and self inflicted decisions will stain company??™s image and destroy stakeholders and stockholders interest. In all perspectives we know as individuals or as company values, integrity, positive ethical behavior and social responsbility defines the character of the person and the company.

Bibliography
Pearson, J. A., & Robinson, R. B. (2004). Strategic management: Formalation, implementation, and control (9th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill/Irwin.