Ethnical Studies

KERTAS KAJIAN ETNIK UKM
(UKM Ethnic Studies Papers)

Kertas Kajian Etnik UKM Bil. 2 (November) 2008
(UKM Ethnic Studies Papers No. 2 [November] 2008)

Many ethnicities, many cultures, one nation:
The Malaysian experience

Shamsul A. B.
[Shamsul Amri Baharuddin]

INSTITUT KAJIAN ETNIK (KITA)
INSTITUTE OF ETHNIC STUDIES
UNIVERSITI KEBANGSAAN MALAYSIA

Cetakan Pertama / First Printing, 2008
Hak cipta / Copyright Penulis / Author
Institut Kajian Etnik (KITA)
Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 2008

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Shamsul Amri Baharuddin
Many ethnicities, many cultures, one nation: The Malaysian experience /Shamsul Amri Baharuddin
(UKM Ethnic Studies Papers No. 2 [November] 2008)
1. Malaysia??”Ethnic Relations. 2. Diversity ??“ Malaysia.
3. Ethnicity ??“Malaysia. 4. Culture ??“ Malaysia.
5. Nation ??“ Malaysia.

Kertas Kajian Etnik UKM Bil. 1 (November) 2008
(UKM Ethnic Studies Papers No.1 [November] 2008)

Institut Kajian Etnik (KITA)
Institute of Ethnic Studies

Many ethnicities, many cultures, one nation:
The Malaysian experience

Shamsul Amri Baharuddin

INSTITUT KAJIAN ETNIK (KITA)
UNIVERSITI KEBANGSAAN MALAYSIA
BANGI

Many ethnicities, many cultures, one nation:
The Malaysian experience

Abstract

Malaysia, since Independence, had been in a state of ???stable tension,??™ which means that we have been living in a society dominated by many contradictions but we have managed to solve most of them through a continuous process of consensus-seeking negotiations, sometimes the process itself became a solution. The negotiations have taken many forms, some officials and others embedded in our daily interactions at marketplace, coffee shops and the like. In recent times, such activities are conducted in the cyber space, through the Internet, blogs and even through the use of mobile phones, especially, and SMSs. This paper argues that Malaysians clearly prefers ???tongue wagging not parang (machete) wielding.??? This simply means that they prefer to talk instead of resorting to violence. The paper presents three instances of how the negotiations take place and the implications for long-term harmonious ethnic relations in Malaysia.

Pelbagai etnisiti, pelbagai budaya, satu bangsa:
Pengalaman Malaysia

Abstrak

Malaysia, semenjak Merdeka, wujud dalam keadaan ???ketegangan yang stabil??™ (stable tension), yang menunjukkan bahawa biar pun selama ini kehidupan dalam masyarakat Malaysia sarat dengan kontradiksi, namun kita mampu menyelesaikan sebahagian besar daripadanya melalui proses perundingan yang bertujuan mencari konsensus, dan kadang-kadang proses itu sendiri menjadi penyelesai. Perundingan itu terdapat dalam pelbagai bentuk, sebahagiannya dilaksana secara rasmi dan selainnya tersirat dalam interaksi seharian di pasar, kedai kopi dan sepertinya. Akhir-akhir ini, kegiatan tersebut berlaku dalam ruang siber, melalui Internet, blogs malah melalui telefon bimbit menggunakan SMS. Kertas ini menghujahkan bahawa orang Malaysia lebih suka ???bertikam lidah daripada berparangan.??™ Ringkasnya, orang Malaysia lebih suka berunding daripada menggunakan kekerasan. Kertas ini membentang tiga contoh perundingan tersebut dan mengupas implikasi janga panjang kegiatan ini terhadap kelestarian hubungan etnik yang harmonis di Malaysia.

Many ethnicities, many cultures, one nation:
The Malaysian experience

Malaysia a nation in the state of ???stable tension??™

It was some 39 years ago, on May 13 of 1969, that an open and bloody ethnic conflict broke out in Kuala Lumpur, the capital of Malaysia. Ethnic violence also occurred in a few other locations but away from Kuala Lumpur. Malaysia at that the time was a plural society created by British colonial economic policies, with a population of 56 percent Malay Muslims, 35 percent Chinese Malaysians, 8 percent Indian Malaysians and one percent Others. These percentages are not much different from the population??™s ethnic composition today. The ethnic diversity is significantly complicated by other form of diversities, namely, cultural, religious, regional, political orientation and economic activity.

Although the conflict was localized and successfully contained, the aftermath was felt throughout the country. It was the severest test of ethnic relations in post-Merdeka (post-Independence) Malaysia. It became a watershed event in the political and sociological analyses of Malaysian society, and in the consciousness of individual Malaysians, because it was so traumatic. It conscientized people and most importantly, it redefined the perceptions of our ethnic relations in our country and changed their dynamics.

Ordinary Malaysians were rudely awakened to the fact that the ethnic harmony that they had enjoyed since Merdeka could not be taken for granted anymore. The government was quick to mobilize all its resources to find immediate remedies and long-term solutions, both economic and political ones.

The government declared a national Emergency, and democracy was suspended. A National Consultative Council was set up to seek solutions palatable to all the ethnic groups, especially the Malays.

The New Economic Policy (NEP) was introduced, in 1971, to address, in short and long-term, the intra- and inter-ethnic socio-economic differences resulting from the complex of diversities in the country ??“ ethnic, cultural, religious, regional, political orientation and economic activity. The Rukunegara (National Charter) was created as an ideology to be embraced by Malaysians from all walks of life. A Department of National Unity was established as a bureaucratic instrument to keep watch over the state of ethnic relations in Malaysia.

Malaysia had since been in a state of ???stable tension,??™ which means that we have been living in a society dominated by many contradictions but we have managed to solve most of them through a continuous process of consensus-seeking negotiations, sometimes the process itself became a solution.

The downside of the on-going negotiation between ethnic interest groups in Malaysia is that the potentially negative and divisive ethnic fault lines, based on very significant differences in religion, language, dress and diet, have become highlighted more so than ever before. To the prophets of doom, notably foreign journalists, Malaysia has been perceived as a society facing an imminent danger of breaking down for the slightest of reasons.

In general Malaysians remain more optimistic and believe that they have learnt the bitter lesson that nobody gains from an open ethnic conflict manifesting in violence. But they remain sociologically vigilant and chose consensus, not conflict, as the path for the future.

Nevertheless, they also realize that sweeping things under the carpet was not the solution. Indeed, they have become acutely aware that contestation between the different ethnic groups will not simply disappear and cannot be ignored.

So, instead of choosing street violence as a solution to settle their differences, they decided that the only rational and reasonable avenue left for them was in the realm of public discourse. Nonetheless, sometimes, Malaysians do sometimes engage themselves in peaceful street demonstrations. Whenever the authorities felt that the public discourse on ethnic differences, articulated at times in the form of street demonstrations, was slowly getting out-of-hand they were swift to dampen the tinder before it broke into a fire.

As a result, the public discourse on ethnic differences amongst Malaysians since the recent burst of public demonstrations has become highly sensible and has been handled with great sensitivity. The discourse thus far has been a healthy one, whether it is through traditional mass media platform or through the channels of the more recent electronic media, such as the internet, blogs and sms.

Malaysians prefer ???tongue wagging not parang wielding??™

Generally, discussion on the state of ethnic relations in Malaysia, whether in the open or in private, has been a reasoned and rational one, although it can become heated at times. But in the aftermath of May 1969, Malaysians have clearly stated that they prefer ???tongue wagging not parang (machete) wielding.??? This simply means that they prefer to talk instead of resorting to violence. I hereby present three instances for our reflection.
Instance 1

In 2006, a public discourse on ethnic relations in Malaysia was triggered by comments made in a local newspaper by Professor Khoo Kay Kim (The New Sunday Times, 19 February 2006), a well-known and respected historian, indeed acclaimed as one of the architects of the Rukunegara (National Charter). He was concerned about the ???worrying state??? of the relationship between ethnic groups in Malaysia. His remarks drew equally important and healthy reactions from a broad spectrum of the concerned public, in the printed and electronic media.

Professor Khoo Kay Kim expressed concerned that ethnic unity in Malaysia was still in a ???fragile state.??™ He suggested that one of the possible solutions would be to teach cultural history. Some agreed and others disagreed with him.

It is useful to point out that the main concern of Professor Khoo Kay Kim was a legitimate one, indeed one often expressed by Malaysians from all walks of life. They feel that ethnic relations in Malaysia seemed to be continuously in a ???worrying and fragile state.??? They also argue that the situation has become so because there have been numerous misunderstandings and incidents of miscommunication between the different ethnic groups. This situation arises from the fact that they know so little about one another beyond the prejudices and stereotypes that they learnt from bedtime stories and the rumour mongering ???tradition??™ at the family and grassroots level in Malaysia.

It is not uncommon for young Malaysians to grow up and survive until adolescence cocooned in their specific ethnic socio-cultural environment, be it Malay, Chinese or Indian. This happens partly because of the barriers created by significantly different languages and religious traditions, partly because different ethnic groups live in segregated physical locations, and partly as a result of the institutionalization of the vernacular school system, where one is most likely to attend a school where one??™s own mother tongue is a primary focus of the curriculum. The overall end result of all these is the thickening of the barriers creating ethnic insulation and segregation at the individual personal level.

The ???vernacularization,??™ at the macro-national level, of Malaysia??™s modern electoral politics, namely, in the form of ethnic-based political parties which survives on ???ethnic support and loyalties??™, further shaped the making of an insulated, segregated and ethnicised individual Malaysians who are only at home in their own ???vernacular??™ social collectives. In other words, Malaysians are usually united or homogenized within their respective ???ethnic psychic??™ realms within everyday-life. However, at the official macro-national level, they do sometimes symbolically express a form of shared viewpoints and unity as Malaysians, but this is mostly a ???situational??™ rather than lasting phenomenon.

The continuous swinging of the identity pendulum between a ???situational??™ and ???official??™ ethnic positions experienced thus far by Malaysians, both as individuals and social collectives, has generated the perception amongst Malaysians themselves, as expressed by Prof. Khoo Kay Kim, that ethnic relations in Malaysia are in a ???worrying and fragile state.??? Professor Khoo Kay Kim then suggested that as one of the possible solutions to stop this worry and make Malaysia less fragile is to teach cultural history.

The moot question here is that in the vernacular education system that Malaysia has had for more than a century now, and which is still functioning well, would the ???cultural history??™ proposed be a ???vernacularised??™ and ethnically-specific version or a ???homogenised??™ national one Professor Khoo Kay Kim??™s contribution would have been enhanced if he had analysed the limited success in the history of the mainstream national school system that uses the national language, Bahasa Malaysia, as its medium of instruction and how the vernacular schools which use Mandarin, Tamil and a few other languages have thrived.

In other words, I would argue that there has been an active process promoting the reproduction of ethnic differences and the polarization of ethnic groups in Malaysia through the presence of vernacular schools, partly funded by the government. The public schools in the mainstream education system, which uses Bahasa Malaysia, the official national language as their medium of instruction becomes the ???educational canopy??™ over the whole system. However, only about 70% of school-going children are enrolled in these.

It is an irony that at the basic primary level of the education system Malaysia continues to reproduce ethnic differences, and yet at the higher levels, the efforts at integration are earnestly pursued, albeit an incomplete one. I would argue that this is one of the central factors that has been generating Malaysia??™s state of stable tension, or as Prof. Khoo Kay Kim??™s words suggest, a ???worrying and fragile state of ???ethnic relations??? in Malaysia. The vernacular education system provides the language and idiom of opposition whether in official or daily contexts, and is the perfect breeding ground for different ethnic viewpoints and embedded interests. In contrast to this, the national language based mainstream education is still the most important ???trans-ethnic canopy,??™ providing the over-arching structure which holds the society together, along with the federalist form of governance and the capitalist market forces.

Instance 2

In 2007, the discussion on ethnic relations became more widespread and indeed serious owing to the impending introduction of a compulsory university course, called ???Ethnic Relations,??? in some 20 public universities in Malaysia, and the publication of the ???Ethnic Relations Module??? to be used by some 20,000 newly enrolled university students, from all faculties, for whom the course was compulsory.

The main objective of the ???Ethnic Relations??? course was to raise awareness of the state of ethnic relations in Malaysia amongst the university students from all faculties and programs, in the natural sciences, social sciences and others, and facilitate mutual understanding among the ethnic groups by imparting detailed information about the culture and values of each to a level not normally understood. Indeed, as social actors themselves, students are at the verge of entering not only the job market but, more importantly, as the expanding intelligentsia of Malaysian society. It was envisaged that the sharing of their lived experience of their individual ethnic identities in a classroom situation would enable them to exchange among themselves their personal experiences and views to members of different ethnic groups, thus facilitating mutual understanding. This process of face-to-face interaction mediated by lecturers trained as facilitators was planned as an optimum context for raising the awareness of the need for cross-cultural understanding in Malaysia n society.

I was appointed by Malaysia??™s Ministry of Higher Education to be the General Editor of the ???Ethnic Relations Module.??? Apparently, the decision to offer this role to me was endorsed by the Malaysian Cabinet. I should have been overjoyed to be given such a ???national honour,??™ but, as a social anthropologist, I also know it is also a ???sociological booby trap??™ through which I would have to navigate extremely careful in accomplishing the extremely challenging task and to be constantly vigilant and watchful in the long-run. To put it bluntly, ???it??™s a difficult job with unknown consequences.???

When my acceptance to take up the task of being the General Editor of the ???Ethnic Relations Module??? was made public, I was at once labeled a ???patriot??? [pejuang bangsa] and ???sycophant??? [pembodek kerajaan] by friends and detractors, respectively. However, I accepted the praise and criticism with an open mind, just like my gurus, the two Syeds, namely, Syed Husin Ali and Syed Hussein Alatas, both of whom have been exemplary academicians and social activists in our society.

Editing and finally making the module available to be used in July 2007 was a life-defining journey for me personally. From the original 350-page draft it had to be reduced to a 150-page draft, complete with bibliography and an index.

However, one unique feature of this module is that every draft was sent to the Malaysian Cabinet for review. It went to the Cabinet at least three times and was submitted a few more times at the Ministry of Higher Education level, before it was finally presented to the public in January 2007. The feedback received from the Cabinet and government officials is interesting to note. It ranges from comments about content to form. I believe the draft was passed on to be read and reviewed by other interested parties from within the different members of the ruling party coalition, namely, the Malaysian Chinese Association (MCA), Gerakan party and Malaysian Indian Congress (MIC). To the best of my knowledge, never before, in the history of post-colonial Malaysia, did such a publication has had received so much attention from the Cabinet.

When the final draft was made public in the media on 24 January 2007, we have another round of public reactions, this time focusing on, not so much the content, but the editorial quality (grammar, spelling errors and a few other matters). There were also comments by community-based organizations, political parties and individuals on the content. In fact, I was invited to a series of public forums and seminars organized by groups representing a cross-section of public interests, and these discussions were reported widely in the print and electronic media. These activities allowed me to improve further some sections of the module.

Will this exercise of consciousness-raising concerning the importance of ethnic issues and the need for more mutual understanding of cultural forms has an effect on future ethnic relations in Malaysia We have to wait for the answers after a national evaluation is conducted, in the near future, on the impact of the ???Ethnic Relations??? course upon the students who have followed it.

Instance 3

The debate on ethnic unity became more active and widespread after the Malaysian 12th General Elections held on the 8th March 2008, which resulted in the coalition of opposition parties gaining a strong foothold of representation and the ruling National Front coalition losing its two-third majority in the Malaysian parliament.

Matters considered taboo and sensitive previously, such as on the issue of corruption in the public service, nepotism in the awarding of huge lucrative public construction projects, and the not-so-transparent quality of government agencies were discussed and debated openly, not surprisingly in a highly critical manner. But underlining all the debates is the fact that the issues were all ???ethnicised??? in one way or another, meaning that each was discussed within the context of a particular ethnic group??™s agenda or viewpoint.

The most obvious example is when Malaysians discussed matters relating to the distribution of economic wealth in the country. When the violent ethnic riots occurred in Kuala Lumpur on May 13 1969, after the 3rd General Elections of May 10, 1969, there was widespread concern that violence would characterize future of ethnic relations in Malaysia. The multi-ethnic National Consultative Council set up in 1970, as a reaction to this incident, decided that the root of the problem was the economic backwardness of the indigenous groups, or bumiputera as they are known, the majority of whom were Malay Muslims.

Their brainchild, the New Economic Policy (NEP) was introduced in 1971. It was to run for 20 years, until 1990. It had two main objectives: first, the eradication of poverty in Malaysia irrespective of the race or ethnicity of the poor; second, the restructuring of Malaysia society, so that occupation were no longer associated with particular ethnic groups ??“ Malays with the rural and largely subsistence peasant economy, the Chinese Malaysian with urban based entrepreneurial activity and wealth, and the Indian Malaysians with underprivileged rural plantation labour. The over-arching long-term aim of the NEP was to create national unity through top-down economic-oriented public policy instruments of the NEP to effect a more equitable distribution of the country??™s wealth among the different ethnic groups.

The single most highlighted aspect of the NEP has been about the creation of wealth ownership for the economically backward indigenous Malay peasantry who made up 56 per cent of the population at the time but who owned only two per cent of the national wealth. A target was set for them to achieve 30 per cent ownership of the national economic wealth in 20 years. When the 20-year period was over, only 20per cent of the equity share had been achieved by the Malays, according to the government. But recently, a group of researchers argued that the target had in fact been achieved. So, the debate goes on about the NEP until today especially concerning its success or failure. The main criticism has been that the distribution of the NEP??™s wealth among the indigenous people resulting from the NEP has been uneven, and indeed the internal disparity in income within the indigenous group had increased. The distribution process has been said to have been dominated by almost uncontrolled corrupt practices. On the positive side, a number of studies have shown that the size of the indigenous middle class expanded significantly in the short period of 20 years.

But the biggest public complaints concerning the outcomes of the NEP so far have come from the Indian Malaysian community, who on November 25 2007 launched a massive street demonstration in Kuala Lumpur. This was organized by HINDRAF (Hindu Rights Action Force), led by a group of disgruntled Indian middle-class professionals, mainly lawyers. What began as an intra-ethnic class struggle has now become a national inter-ethnic one, with the indigenous-Malay dominated government as the target. The issues that were raised by the group were not only economic ones but also religious, educational and a host of others. The present government is doing its level best to address the demands of the Indians in an amicable and peaceful way.

One significant effect of these discussions and protests on Malaysian society as a whole is that Malaysians have realized that they have been able to deal with them in a more matured manner than ever before. This was demonstrated during the recent 2008 General Elections. In spite of the large victory obtained by the opposition coalition, unlike in the case of the 1969 General Election, there was no outcome of ethnic rioting or violence. Everyone was cool and composed, the winners and losers accepted what happened in a reasoned and rational manner, demonstrating the contemporary Malaysian attitude that ???tongue wagging and not parang waving??? is the preferred choice. In short, every Malaysian is a winner.

Maintaining a middle ground

Everybody knows that Malaysia has many ethnic groups of various cultural backgrounds but Malaysians are always striving to survive in one peaceful nation. This is the most striking and positive feature of Malaysian society in the last 40 years or so. It is very clear that in Malaysia, violence is not an option.

Malaysians will no doubt continue in the future to discuss openly or in private about matters concerning their personal ethnic woes, intra- and inter-ethnic difficulties, in the search for a middle ground in order to safeguard their lifestyles and allow them to continue to enjoy the quality of life the country is blessed with.

We must accept the fact that we do need to conduct continuous public discourse such as the above-mentioned three instances, to remind us that we are living in a state of ???stable tension,??™ and therefore have to work very hard to maintain peace and stability in the country. However important, famous and charismatic a Malaysian, a leader or public figure is, his or her personal interest is never above the interest of the rakyat, the people. We, therefore, have to work very hard to make harmonious ethnic relations prevail, not only in the abstract realm of social theory but also in the practical sense, in the midst of daily life.

Like citizens in many other countries that have embarked on the modernization project, Malaysians have to remind themselves of the fact that there are two major components in such an endeavour, namely, economic and political factors. Finding and maintaining a balance between them is the both a necessity and also the greatest challenge.

To measure the success of the economic component is relatively easy. Growth figures help us to ascertain where we are heading in our industrialization push. GNP figures and the poverty line indicate the economic spread, even or uneven. The thriving shopping malls demonstrate the healthy expansion of our middle class and our love for the globalised consumerist lifestyle.

However, to achieve the political target of nation-building, by realizing national integration, to be conducted through the implementation of various national policies — in the fields of education, language and culture — is not an easy task. In fact, the exercise of nation-building, on the whole, is a nebulous one. The measurement of its success is equally an imprecise one. However, we hope to establish in the near future set of ???national integration indicators??™ or ???unity index??™ in Malaysia.

In 1991, our former Prime Minister, Tun Mahathir Mohamed, outlined the nine challenges in creating a united Malaysian nation, or Bangsa Malaysia, in his famous ???Vision 2020??™ statement. With this, he clearly implies that we are still building the nation, we will to work hard to achieve it. He hopes it could be accomplished by the year 2020.

When proposing his Vision 2020, he must have realized that we are still saddled with a number of historical-structural impediments in the nation-building process, be they in the education, socio-cultural and economic spheres as well as Malaysia??™s modern electoral system. Perhaps the only useful method for measuring our success in nation-building, obviously complemented by our economic achievements, is to compare our overall performance with that of other multi-ethnic countries which were once considered to be success stories, such as Sri Lanka and Yugoslavia.

That we have been perceived as a model of success by the developing countries, sufficient for them to have confidence in selecting to play the leading role as the Chair for NAM (Non-Aligned Movement which has 118 member countries), OIC (Organization of Islamic Conference which has 57 member countries) and ASEAN (Association Southeast Asian Nations which has 10 member countries), speaks volumes for our achievement.

Therefore, the state of ethnic relations in Malaysia cannot be evaluated solely based on subjective personal evaluations of the phenomenological kind by a few Malaysians, however famous and serious they are. We appreciate their concerns. We value their reminders. But we have to reject their rather simplistic and skin-deep comments.

It is important to remember that ???unity is not uniformity.??? Total unity and absolute integration are but utopias. Crying for their absence could mislead others and would generate alienating, indeed, violent anomic consequences that must be avoid at all cost. We have to live with our differences. Indeed, we have been doing so for decades, even if the situation is not completely perfect. We are proud as Malaysians that we have done much better than other countries with similar multi-ethnic societies.

Lessons learnt

However, to maintain ethnic harmony at any cost is not an easy task. To ignore this is to invite unfathomable difficulties and dire consequences, such as we have witnessed in the black events of May 13 1969. Perhaps it is against such a background that the government has recently made the effort to introduce ???Ethnic Relations??? as a subject to be offered to our students at institutions of higher learning. This program may not create national integration and ethnic unity overnight but it is a starting point that we all need to have access to, not only in relation to our cultural history, as suggested by Professor Khoo Kay Kim, but concerning matters much more far reaching, such as economic equality and equity, and building a strong democratic tradition.

Malaysia will remain one of the few nations in the world today, whose experience and track record in dealing with many ethnicities and many cultures is a useful one. It is not a perfect one. It is not easily replicated but it is a useful for other states to study closely and perhaps gaining some useful insights from it.

I wish to end my presentation with a quotation from Joseph Stiglitz, the Nobel Prize Winner for Economics in 2001, about Malaysia and how it had handled the massive Asian economic crises of 1997-1998 that, if not managed sensitively and successfully, could have led to grave and violent consequences for the state of stable tension in Malaysia??™s ethnic relations. He said:

???I had the opportunity to talk to Malaysia??™s prime minister after the riots in Indonesia. His country has also experienced ethnic riots in the past. Malaysia has done a lot to prevent their recurrence, including putting in a program to promote employment for ethnic Malays. Mahathir knew that all gains in building a multiracial society could be lost, had he let the IMF dictate its policies to him and his country and then riots had broken out. For him, preventing a severe recession was not just a matter of economics, it was a matter of the survival of the nation.???
[Joseph Stiglitz, Globalization & its Discontents, 2003, p.120]

The good management and balance of economic growth and distribution is necessary to any nation, but more so it seems in a multi-ethnic society. But the case of Malaysia proves the fact that economic development and prosperity alone is not sufficient to maintain political stability. We have to turn to the realm of non-economic factors in the end. In this context, the message is very clear.

In dealing with the non-economic factors there is a huge contribution made by knowledge generated within the social sciences and humanities. Sadly, these are usually neglected in developing economies like Malaysia because we are often overwhelmed by the pursuit of science and technology to bring about much needed economic development and prosperity. This neglect has to be urgently addressed.

Bibliography (Selected)

Fazilah Idris et. al, 2007, ???Pengharmonian Hubungan Etnik Di Kalangan Pelajar Insitusi Pengajian Tinggi: Peranan Sikap dan Kepentingannya,??? suatu kertas untuk Seminar Kebangsaan Ketamadunan, Hubungan Etnik dan Kokurukulum, anjuran Universiti Malaya, di Muzium Seni Asia UM, 20-21 Mach.

Mansor Mohd. Nor, Abdul Rahman Aziz & Mohammad Ainuddin Iskandar Lee, 2006, Hubungan Etnik di Malaysia, Prentice Hall Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur.

Mansor Mohd Nor, 2000, ???A Study on Ethnic Polarisation in the Institutions of Higher Learning,??? A Report for the Department of National Unity and National Integration, Prime Minister??™s Department of Malaysia.

Mansor Mohd. Nor, 2000a, ???Crossing Ethnic Borders in Malaysia: Measuring the Fluidity of Ethnic Identity and Group Formation, ??? Akademika, 55 (July): 61-82

Mansor Mohd Noor, 1998, ???Ethnic Preferences among University Students Universiti Sains Malaysia,??? A Report of CPR, Universiti Sains Malaysia.

Mansor Mohd. Noor & Michael Banton, 1992, “The Study of Ethnic Alignment: A New Technique and An Application in Malaysia,” Ethnic and Racial Studies, 15(4):599-613.

Mansor Mohd. Noor & Shamsul Amri Baharuddin, 2005, ???Transformasi Perhubungan Etnik di Malaysia,??? dalam Integrasi Etnik di Institusi Pengajian Tinggi Awam, Mansor Mohd Noor (Ed), Institut Penyelidikan Penyelidikan Tinggi Negara, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Monograf 6, ms:17-27.

Ong Puay Liu. 2007. ???Identity matters: Ethnic salience and perceptions in Malaysia??? in Abdul Rahman Embong (ed.). Rethinking ethnicity and nation-building: Malaysia, Sri Lanka & Fiji in comparative perspective. Kuala Lumpur: Malaysian Social Science Association. Chapter 9: 216-234.

Shamsul A. B., 2004, ???Texts and Collective Memories: The Construction of ???Chinese??™ and ???Chineseness??™ from the Perspective of a Malay???, in Leo Suryadinata (ed), Ethnic Relations and Nation-Building in Southeast Asia, Singapore: ISEAS, pp. 109-144.

Shamsul Amri Baharuddin, et al, 2003, Membina Bangsa Malaysia Jil. 1, 2 & 3, Kuala Lumpur: Jabatan Perpaduan Negara, 2003.

Shamsul A.B. & Sity Daud, 2006, ???Nation, ethnicity, and contending discourse in the Malaysian state,??? in State Making in Asia, edited by Richard Boyd and Tak-Wing Ngo, London: Routledge, pp.131-139 (co-author Sity Daud).

Shamsul Amri Baharuddin, Budaya Yang Tercabar, Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa & Pustaka, 2007.

Shamsul Amri Baharuddin [Shamsul A.B.] (Ketua Editor), 2007, Modul Hubungan Etnik, Penerbit UITM, Shah Alam.

Stiglitz, Joseph, Globalization and Its Discontents, New York, W.W. Norton, 2003.

About KITA …

The Institute of Ethnic Studies (KITA) was officially established on October 8th, 2007 by Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM) to undertake academic research on subjects pertaining to ethnic studies in Malaysia. This research institute is ???only one of its kind??™ in Malaysia, focusing specifically on ???ethnic studies??™ with thematic studies orientation. The Institute emerged out of the need to maintain at home the present peaceful inter- and intra-ethnic existence against worldwide problematic and sometimes violent ethnic situations.

KITA plays a lead role in undertaking academic work which can inform public policy makers, civil service administrators and programme implementers along with the general society and the academic fraternity on ethnic relations in Malaysia. The research undertaken will be able to determine critical concerns regarding inter- and intra-ethnic issues, provide analytical frameworks on the strengths and weaknesses of government policies and programmes as well as strategies and new initiatives in addressing them.

At present, KITA conducts only research (basic, applied and strategic) and does not offer undergraduate and postgraduate studies degree programmes. However, those interested to do research in the field of ethnic studies and be associated with KITA will have to enrol as postgraduate students at any of the relevant academic faculties within UKM but are welcome to apply funding from KITA, in the form of research fellowships, which are also available for post-doctoral candidates.

Organisationally, KITA has five research clusters, each being led by a prominent scholar or a highly experienced professional person. The five research clusters are: Social Theory and Ethnic Studies; Ethnicity and Religion; Ethnicity at Workplace; Ethnicity and Consumerism, and The Arts and Social Integration.

About the UKM Ethnic Studies Paper Series

UKM Ethnic Studies Paper Series marks the inaugural publication of the Institute of Ethnic Studies (KITA), UKM. The purpose of this Paper Series is in line with UKM??™s official status as a research university under the 9th Malaysia Plan. The Series provides a premise for the dissemination of research findings and theoretical debates among academics and researchers in Malaysia and world-wide regarding issues related with ethnic studies.

All articles submitted for this Series will be refereed by at least one reviewer before publication. Opinions expressed in this Series are solely those of the writer(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views and policies of KITA.

For further information, please contact:
Chief Editor
UKM Ethnic Studies Paper Series Committee
Institute of Ethnic Studies (KITA)
Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia
43600 Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia
http://www.ukm.my/kita.html
E-mail: [email protected]; [email protected]

Big Bang Theory of Creation of Universe Parallelism Between Indian Philosophy and Modern Physics

INTRODUCTION

From time immemorial mankind has been struggling with the problems that how this Universe has come into existence. How the harmony and order of the Universe has developed. Why the sun rises, where we have come from, where we go etc. and to resolve this curiosity, they had to increase their intellectual power. Philosophy and science are the result of this intellectual process. cosmology is the study of the structure of the universe as a whole. It means an understanding of the universe, reflection on, and account of it. It should explain the underlying structure or the embodiment and its purpose; how the cosmos came to appearance and an orderly form came up and to what extent
According to the Big Bang model, the universe expanded from an extremely dense and hot state and continues to expand today. A common and useful analogy explains that space itself is expanding, carrying galaxies with it, like raisins in a rising loaf of bread. General relativistic cosmologies, however, do not actually ascribe any physicality to space. Cosmological ideas are the basis of cultural thoughts of all religions. However it has been observed in every religion that no single account, based on scientific, and cosmological approach has been forwarded as to the origin and nature of Universe. It has been seen that more often, they have been contradicting in their approaches.
According to Modern Science, our Universe was born about 13-14 billion years ago. It got created with a Big bang, an incredible explosion of an unimaginable magnitude, a fiery explosion scattering mammoth amounts of matter and energy and debris from the big bang are the raw material for the birth of billions of stars and galaxies.
Physicists and cosmologists are close to proving that there is only one source behind the physical universe, what they call a unified-field of Physics. Underneath it is the interplay of an abstract substance called energy. Albert Einstein attempted to solve this puzzle, namely, if everything is normally made up of one single substance i.e. energy, does nature provide different types of fields for energy to work its magic Physicists now realize that these divisions of fields are nothing but different aspects of a single entity, the Unified Field.
The questions like, ???How old is our Universe Where have we come from??? have engaged astronomers across the world for millennia. Using the Hubble Space telescope an International team of astronomers recently deduced that the Universe is 13.7 billion years old. The Vedic faith believes that even the cosmos is not exempt from the cycle of birth, death and rebirth. Cosmic time scales are well beyond our imagination, but our ancients ventured to measure ???This nebulous concept??™.
According to the Vedas, a day and a night of Brahma (demigod of consciousness) is 8.64 billion years long. ???This??™ said Carl Sagan, the renowned scientist-writer, ???is longer than the age of the earth or the sun, and is a little more than half the time since big bang occurred???.
The big bang theory accepted by many scientists for decades, holds that the Universe was born some 14 billion years ago when an unimaginably small dense entity blew up sowing the seeds of every bit of matter and energy.
Soon after that first explosion the Universe expanded rapidly in a phenomenon which astronomers call inflation, and then continued to spread out at varying speeds, until the present day. According to the big bang theory, time begins but never ends, as the Universe will continue to expand.
The Vedic sages derived their insights into the nature of reality without benefit of sophisticated scientific instruments. They simply looked inside themselves, and discovered the secrets of the universe within their own physical beings and their consciousness. Their understanding of the world in terms of five great elements is at once simple and profound. Though this perspective is of ancient origin, the concepts are relevant to our current understanding of reality, and can even illuminate our understanding of Western scientific principles.
Vedic seers were absolutely scientific in their thinking. They perfectly understood the fact that our Universe is ???Ordered??™ and ???harmonious??™ not a chaotic or anarchic mass. Looking at Nature and its fantastic variety, we notice how everything is orderly and harmonious.
A century ago the creation of the universe was a concept that astronomers as rule ignored. The reason was the general acceptance of the idea that the universe existed in infinite time. Examining the Universe, scientists supposed that it was just a conglomeration of matter and imagined that it had no beginning. There was no moment of creation ??“ a moment when the universe and everything in it came into being.
This idea of ???eternal existence??™ fit in well with European notions stemming from the philosophy of materialism. This philosophy originally advanced in the world of the ancient Greeks, held that matter was the only thing that existed in the universe and the universe existed in infinite time and will exist endlessly. This philosophy survived in different forms during Roman times but in the later Roman Empire and middle ages, materialism went into decline as a result of the influence of the Catholic Church and Christian philosophy. It was after renaissance that materialism began to gain broad acceptance among European scholars and scientists, largely because of their devotion to ancient Greek philosophy.
The earliest attempts at explaining the origins of the universe were generally centered in religion. The gods were commonly assumed to have created the known world and the heavens above it. It was also a common belief that they were responsible for the movement of the stars and planets and other heavenly bodies. Ancient civilizations, Greek, Roman etc. and even more recent people had their creation stories, or myths. This notion was sufficient to satisfy their curiosity so far.
In the beginning the earth was assumed to be flat. At least it appeared so to its first observers, hunters and gatherers, and members of primitive civilizations. This assumption was the result of the people??™s ignorance of the fact that the earth??™s surface is in the shape of curvature. This assumption again generates corollary that the earth must end somewhere if it is not infinite. Infinite is a rather unfathomable conception and hence right down to the Middle Ages people were afraid of the possibility of falling off from the earth??™s boundaries. What lies beyond these boundaries was largely unknown and open to speculation. The starry heavens were a source of endless wonder and inspiration. People from all parts of the world created their own myths, inspired by the skies and the celestial bodies. These myths can be speculated as an attempt to explain their own place in the Universe. Six thousand years ago, the Sumerians believed that the earth was at the center of the cosmos. This belief was later accepted by the Babylonians and Greeks.
History tells us that it was the Greeks who first put forward the idea that our planet is a sphere. Around 340BC, the Greek philosopher Aristotle made a few good points in favour of this theory in ???On the Heavens??? such as he argued that one first sees the sails of a ship coming over the horizon and only later its hull, which indicates that the surface of the ocean is curved.
The influence of Aristotle was significant. Around 150 AD Claudius Ptolemaeus (Ptolemy) elaborated Aristotle??™s ideas into a complete cosmological model. Ptolemy assumed that perfect motion should be in circles, so the stars and planets, being heavenly objects, moved in circles. He thought that the earth was stationary at the centre of the Universe and that the sun, stars and all planets revolved round it in circular orbits. Hence the model is sometimes referred to as the geocentric system. Ptolemy was aware that the postulation of perfect circular orbits contradicted observations, since the planets motion, size and brightness varied with time. In order to account for the observed derivations he introduced the idea of epicycles, smaller circular orbits around the earth. This enabled astronomers to make reasonably accurate predictions about the movement of the celestial bodies, and consequently the Ptolemic model was a great success. The system was later adopted by the Christian church and became the dominant cosmology until the 16th century.
In 1514, the polish Astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus (1473 ??“ 1543) put forward an alternative model, referred to as the heliocentric system, in which the sun is at the centre of the Universe, and all planets, including earth, revolve around it. The further apart a planet is from the Sun, the longer it takes to complete a revolution. Unfortunately the Copernican system was not inherently simpler than the geocentric system and it did not immediately render more accurate calculations of the planet??™s motion. So the observational evidence of the time favoured the Ptolemic system.
There were other practical reasons why many astronomers of the time rejected the Copernican notion that the earth orbited the sun. Tycho Brahe (December 14, 1546 ??“ October 24, 1601), a Danish nobleman from the region of Scania (in modern-day Sweden), best known today the greatest astronomer of the sixteenth century, though in his lifetime he was also well known as an astrologer and alchemist offered a third alternative in the year 1599 in which he suggested that the various planets, with the exception of the earth, orbited the sun and the sun in turn orbited a stationary earth which was at the centre of the then known universe. He realized that if the earth was moving about the sun, then the relative positions of the stars should change as viewed from different parts of the earth??™s orbit. But there was no evidence of this shift, from different parts of the earth??™s orbit.
It was only with the aid of the newly invented telescope in the early seventeenth century (Around 1608) that Galileo, an Italian Scientist, could deal fatal blow to the notion that the earth was at the centre of the universe and the Ptolemic theory was discarded.
With the help of telescope Galileo Galilei (1564 ??“ 1642) discovered the four largest moons orbiting the planet Jupiter. The existence of these moons demonstrated beyond doubt that not all celestial bodies revolve around the earth. Galileo established the truth of the Copernican model which created a tremendous revolution in the world of thought. This discovery of Galileo infuriated the contemporary Church authority. Consequently Galileo struggled with church authorities during much of his time. He was placed on house arrest and forbidden to publish his theory.
In 1594, the German astronomer Johnnes Kepler (1571 -1630) once an assistant to Tycho Brahe, refined the heliocentric model in his work ???Mysterium Cosmographicum??™ (1596; ???Cosmographic Mystery???) by showing that planets move on elliptical rather than circular orbits and gave us the means for calculating their individual distance from the Sun. Kepler also prepared the idea of gravity by explaining that the sun exerts a force on planets that diminishes inversely with distance and causes them to move faster on their orbits, the closer they come to the sun. This theory finally allowed predictions that matched observations.
Kepler??™s model remained the accepted one till 17th century. In about 1687 an English Scientist Isaac Newton discovered the force of gravity and further refined Kepler??™s motion of the forces between celestial bodies. Newton postulated the law of universal gravitation that applied to all bodies, whether in space or on earth, and he supplied the mathematical foundation for it. According to Newton bodies attract each other proportionally with their size and inversely with the square of the distance between them. He went on to demonstrate that according to this law, planets move on elliptical orbits, as previously assumed by Kepler. Unfortunately one consequence of this theory is that the stars of the universe attract each other and thus must eventually collapse on to each other. Newton was not able to give a plausible explanation for this phenomenon.
To counter this paradox it was inferred that the universe is infinite in space, and thus contains an infinite number of evenly distributed stars, which would on the whole create a gravitational equilibrium. This assumption however would still imply instability. If the balance is disturbed in one region of space, the nearest stars collapse and the gravitational pull of the resulting more massive body draws the next cluster of stars. Clusters would collapse and eventually draw the entire universe. Today we know that this is not the case, because the universe is not static as Newton thought.
The question of whether the universe has boundaries in time and space has captivated the imagination of mankind. Some would say the universe has been existed eternally, while others would say that the universe was created and thus had a beginning in time and space. The second thesis immediately raises the question what exists beyond its temporal and spatial bounds. Could it be nothingness But then, what is nothingness, the absence of matter or the absence of space and time itself The German philosopher Immanuel Kant dealt intensively with this question. In his book ???Critique of Pure reason??™ he came to the conclusion that the question cannot be answered reliably within the limits of human knowledge.
Despite Kant??™s doubt thereto, it appears that modern astronomy has answered the above question. The universe we observe is finite. It has a beginning in space and time, and prior to this beginning the concept of space and time has no meaning, because space ??“time itself is a property of the universe.
It was only during the nineteenth century that the astronomer and mathematician Bessel finally measured the distance to the stars by parallax. The nearest star other than the sun turned out to be about 25 million.
Most of the stars we can see are contained in the Milky Way ??“ the bright band of stars that stretches across our night sky. Kant and others proposed that our Milk way was in fact a lens shaped ???island universe??? or galaxy, and that beyond our own Milky Way there must be other galaxies.
Besides stars and planets, astronomers have noticed fuzzy patches of light on the night sky, which they call nebulae. Some astronomers thought these could be distant galaxies. It was only in the 1920s that American astronomer Edwin Hubble established that some of these nebulae were indeed distant galaxies comparable in size to our Milky Way galaxy.
Edwin Hubble, the stalwart of Modern Physics, also made the remarkable discovery that these galaxies seemed to be moving away from us, with a speed proportional to their distance from us. In this connection his formula stands as follows:
V=H0d
Where V is the speed at which galaxy moves away from us, and d is its distance. The constant of proportionality H0 is now called the Hubble constant.
Hubble observed shifts in the spectra of light from different galaxies, which are proportional to distance from us. The farther away the galaxy, the more its spectrum is shifted towards the low (red) end of the spectrum, which is in some way comparable to the Doppler Effect. This red shift indicates recession of objects in space. Today there is convincing evidence for Hubble??™s observation. Projecting Galaxy trajectories backward in time means that they converge to high density state i.e. the initial fireball.
It was soon realized that this had a very natural explanation in terms of Einstein??™s recently discovered General theory of relativity:our universe is expanding ! This discovery marked the beginning of the modern age of cosmology.
In fact Einstein might have predicted that the universe is expanding after he first proposed his theory in 1915. Matter tends to fall together under gravity. So it was impossible to have static universe. However, Einstein realized he could introduce an arbitrary constant into his mathematical equations, which could balance the gravitational force and keep the galaxies apart. This became known as the cosmological constant. Afterwards it was discovered that the universe is actually expanding; Einstein declared that introducing the cosmological constant was the greatest blunder of his life!
The Russian Physicist Alexandra Friedman had realized in 1917 that Einstein??™s equations could describe an expanding universe. He produced computation showing that the universe had been born at one moment, about ten thousand million years ago in the past and the galaxies were still travelling away from us after that initial burst. All the matter, indeed the universe itself was created at just one instant. The Belgian Astronomer George Lemaitre was the first to recognize what Friedman work is meant. The British astronomer Fred Hoyle dismissively called it the Big bang and the name stuck. Hubble??™s discovery that the universe is expanding leads to the emergence of another model that if the universe is getting bigger as time advances, going back in time means that it is getting smaller, and if one goes back enough, everything would shrink and converge at a single point. The conclusion to be derived from this model was that at some time, all the matter in the universe was confined in a single point mass that had ???zero volume??™ because of its immense gravitational force. Lemaitre referred to this state of the universe as the primeval atom and assumed that it was self existing or self created. The model of the universe stemming from the proposal of Lemaitre as modified later by others is commonly called the big-bang universe. Our universe came into being as the result of the explosion of this point mass that had zero volume. This explosion has come to be called the ???The big bang??™ and its existence has repeatedly been confirmed by observational theory about the early development and current shape of the universe.
There was a rival model called steady state model advocated by Bondi, Gold and Hoyle developed to explain the expansion of the universe. This required the continuous creation of matter to produce new galaxies as the universe expanded, ensuring that the universe could be expanding but still unchanging in time.
For many years it seemed a purely academic point of view whether the universe was eternal and unchanging or had only existed for a finite length of time. But a decisive blow was dealt to the steady state model when in 1965 Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson discovered a cosmic microwave background radiation. This was interpreted as the faint afterglow of the intense radiation of a Hot big bang, which had been predicted by George Gamow in 1948 and later by Ralph Alpher and Robert Hermann back in 1950.
Following this earlier work by Gamow, Alpher and Herman in the 1940??™s, theorists calculated the relative abundances of the elements hydrogen and helium that might be produced in a hot big bang found it was in good agreement with the observations. When the abundance of other light elements was calculated these too were consistent with the values observed. Since the 1970??™s almost all cosmologists have come to accept the hot big bang model and have begun asking more specific, but still fundamental, questions about our universe. How did the galaxies and clusters of galaxies that we observe today form out of the primordial expansion What is most of the matter in the universe made of General theory of relativity tells us that matter curves space??“time. This raises another question what is the shape of the universe Is there a cosmological constant after all
We are only beginning to find answers to some of these questions. The cosmic microwave background radiation plays a key role as it gives a picture of the universe as it was only a hundred thousand years after the Big bang. It turns out to be remarkably uniform, that it was only in 1992 that NASA??™s cosmic background explorer satellite detected the first anisotropies in this background radiation. There is slight fluctuation in the temperature of the radiation, about one part in a hundred thousand, which may be the seeds from which galaxies formed. Since the early 1980s there has been an explosion of interest in the physics of the early universe. The detection of cosmic microwave background radiation has powerfully attracted the attention of the Physicists towards searching for the early state of the universe. New technology and satellite experiments such as the Hubble space telescope have brought us an ever improving picture of our universe, inspiring theorists to produce ever more daring models.
Throughout the twentieth century the researches on Modern physics about the origin of the universe have steadily accumulated evidences that the Universe had a beginning. This is based on the principles of Edwin Hubble who found the observational evidence for the Big bang theory of the universe prophesized by the Belgian scientist George Lemaitre, which strongly advocates that all matter in the Universe was compact in a single point mass due to its immense gravitational force that had zero volume and the Universe was created from that primeval atom.
Numerous texts are to be found in the Vedic texts, of extraordinary diversity and incomparable richness, which seek unworriedly to penetrate the mystery of the beginnings and to explain the immensity and the amazing harmony of the universe.
In Vedic texts the creation of the Universe is discussed from many angles and in scientific world scientists are also trying their best to explain the creation of the Universe from scientific point of view along with experimental evidences in respect of creation of the universe. In some cases it is found that science and philosophy converges and in some cases it is seen that science and philosophy going in parallel.

CHAPTER II
The Big Bang is the cosmological model of the universe that is best supported by all lines of scientific evidence and observation. The essential idea is that the universe has expanded from a primordial hot and dense initial condition at some finite time in the past and continues to expand to this day. The framework for the model relies on Albert Einsteins General Relativity as formulated by Alexander Friedmann. After Edwin Hubble discovered in 1929 that the distances to far away galaxies were generally proportional to their red shifts, this observation was taken to indicate that all very distant galaxies and clusters have an apparent velocity directly away from our vantage point. The farther away, the higher the apparent velocity.[1] If the distance between galaxy clusters is increasing today, everything must have been closer together in the past. This idea has been considered in detail back in time to extreme densities and temperatures, and large particle accelerators have been built to experiment on and test such conditions, resulting in significant confirmation of the theory. But these accelerators can only probe so far into such high energy regimes. Without any evidence associated with the earliest instant of the expansion, the Big Bang theory cannot and does not provide any explanation for such an initial condition. The theory accurately explains the general evolution of the universe since that instant.
A major success of the theory is its ability to account for the comparative abundance of the elements we find around us, which if you look beyond Earth is mostly hydrogen and helium. The observed abundances of the light elements throughout the cosmos closely match the calculated predictions for the formation of these elements from nuclear processes in the rapidly expanding and cooling first minutes of the universe, as logically and quantitatively detailed according to Big Bang nucleosynthesis and well described in Steven Weinbergs classic The First Three Minutes.
The term Big Bang was apparently first coined by Fred Hoyle in a derisory statement seeking to belittle the credibility of the theory that he did not believe to be true.[2] Ironically, Hoyle helped considerably in the effort to figure out the nuclear pathway for building certain heavier elements from lighter ones. At any rate, after the discovery of the cosmic microwave background in 1964, and especially when its collective frequencies sketched out a blackbody curve, most scientists were fairly convinced by the evidence that some Big Bang scenario must have occurred.
1.2 HISTORY OF THE BIG BANG THEORY
The history of the Big Bang theory began with the Big Bangs development from observations and theoretical considerations. Much of the theoretical work in cosmology now involves extensions and refinements to the basic Big Bang theory.
Prior to the 20th Century
In 1610, Johannes Kepler used the dark night sky to argue for a finite universe. Seventy-seven years later, Isaac Newton described large-scale motion throughout the universe. In 1791, Erasmus Darwin gave the first description of a universe that expanded and contracted in a cyclic manner.
Though not recognized as scientific by either the scientific community or the author himself, who wished his work to be considered a “prose poem”, Edgar Allan Poe proposed a system very similar to the Big Bang theory in his 1848 essay titled Eureka: A Prose Poem. He proposed a finite universe which begins as a single “primal particle”, which expands outwards from “divine volition”, a repulsive force which Poe described as one of the two forces which make up all matter in the universe??”repulsion and attraction (gravity). Matter spreads evenly throughout space, but begins to clump together due to gravity, forming stars and star systems. The material universe is then drawn back together by gravity, eventually returning to the Primal Particle stage in order to begin the process of repulsion and attraction once again.
Early 20th Century
Observationally, in the 1910s, Vesto Slipher and later Carl Wilhelm Wirtz determined that most spiral nebulae were receding from Earth. Slipher used spectroscopy to investigate the rotation periods of planets, the composition of planetary atmospheres, and was the first to observe the radial velocities of galaxies. Wirtz observed a systematic redshift of nebulae, which was difficult to interpret in terms of a cosmology in which the Universe is filled more or less uniformly with stars and nebulae. They werent aware of the cosmological implications, nor that the supposed nebulae were actually galaxies outside our own Milky Way.
Also in that decade, Albert Einsteins theory of general relativity was found to admit no static cosmological solutions, given the basic assumptions of cosmology described in the Big Bangs theoretical underpinnings. The universe was described by a metric tensor that was either expanding or shrinking, a result that Einstein himself considered wrong and he tried to fix by adding a cosmological constant. The first person to seriously apply general relativity to cosmology without the stabilizing cosmological constant was Alexander Friedmann. Friedmann discovered the expanding-universe solution to general relativity field equations in 1922. Friedmanns 1924 papers included “Uber die Moglichkeit einer Welt mit konstanter negativer Krummung des Raumes” (About the possibility of a world with constant negative curvature) which was published by the Brussels Academy of Sciences on the 7 January 1924. Friedmanns equations describe the Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker universe.
In 1927, the Belgian Catholic priest Georges Lemaitre made one of the first modern proposition of the occurrence the Big Bang theory for the origin of the universe, although he called it his “hypothesis of the primeval atom”. He based his theory, published between 1927 and 1933, on the work of Einstein, among others, as well as ancient cosmological-philosophical traditions. Einstein, however, believed in a steady-state model of the universe. Lemaitre independently derived the Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker equations and proposed, on the basis of the recession of spiral nebulae, that the universe began with the “explosion” of a “primeval atom”??”what was later called the Big Bang. Lemaitre took cosmic rays to be the remnants of the event, although it is now known that they originate within the local galaxy.
In 1929, Edwin Hubble provided an observational basis for Lemaitres theory. Hubble discovered that, relative to the Earth, the galaxies are receding in every direction at speeds directly proportional to their distance from the Earth. In 1929 Hubble and Milton Humason formulated the empirical Redshift Distance Law of galaxies, nowadays known as Hubbles law, which, once the redshift is interpreted as a measure of recession speed, is consistent with the solutions of Einstein??™s General Relativity Equations for a homogeneous, isotropic expanding space. This led to the concept of the expanding universe. The law states that the greater the distance between any two galaxies, the greater their relative speed of separation. This discovery later resulted in the formulation of the Big Bang theory.
Given the cosmological principle whereby the universe, when viewed on sufficiently large distance scales, has no preferred directions or preferred places, Hubbles law suggested that the universe was expanding. This idea allowed for two opposing possibilities. One was Lemaitres Big Bang theory, advocated and developed by George Gamow. The other possibility was Fred Hoyles steady state model in which new matter would be created as the galaxies moved away from each other. In this model, the universe is roughly the same at any point in time. It was actually Hoyle who coined the name of Lemaitres theory, referring to it sarcastically as “this big bang idea” during a radio broadcast on March 28, 1949, on the BBC Third Programme. Hoyle repeated the term in further broadcasts in early 1950, as part of a series of five lectures entitled The Nature of Things. The text of each lecture was published in The Listener a week after the broadcast, the first time that the term “big bang” appeared in print.[1]

Late 20th Century

Comparison of the predictions of the standard Big Bang model with experimental measurements. The power spectrum of the cosmic microwave background radiation anisotropy is plotted in terms of the angular scale (or multipole moment) (top).
For a number of years the support for these theories was evenly divided. However, the observational evidence began to support the idea that the universe evolved from a hot dense state. The discovery of the cosmic microwave background radiation in 1965 , although, as Big Bang skeptics point out, this prediction was only qualitative, and failed to predict the actual temperature of the CMB. After some reformulation, the Big Bang has been regarded as the best theory of the origin and evolution of the cosmos. Before the late 1960s, many cosmologists thought the infinitely dense and physically paradoxical singularity at the starting time of Friedmanns cosmological model could be avoided by allowing for a universe which was contracting before entering the hot dense state and starting to expand again. This was formalized as Richard Tolmans oscillating universe. In the sixties, Stephen Hawking and others demonstrated that this idea was unworkable, and the singularity is an essential feature of the physics described by Einsteins gravity. This led the majority of cosmologists to accept the notion that the universe as currently described by the physics of general relativity has a finite age. However, due to a lack of a theory of quantum gravity, there is no way to say whether the singularity is an actual origin point for the universe or whether the physical processes that govern the regime cause the universe to be effectively eternal in character.
1.3 Future of the theory
Much of the current work in cosmology includes understanding how galaxies form in the context of the Big Bang, understanding what happened at the Big Bang, and reconciling observations with the basic theory. In the past there was much discussion as to whether the Big Bang would need to be completely abandoned as a description of the universe, but such proponents of non-standard cosmology have become fewer in number over the last few decades. Cosmologists continue to calculate many of the parameters of the Big Bang to a new level of precision and hypothesized an expansion of the universe appears to be accelerating.
Huge advances in Big Bang cosmology were made in the late 1990s and the early 21st century as a result of major advances in telescope technology in combination with large amounts of satellite data, such as that from COBE and the Hubble Space Telescope. In 2003, NASAs WMAP takes more detailed pictures of the universe by means of the cosmic microwave background radiation. The image can be interpreted to indicate that the universe is 13.7 billion years old (within one percent error) and that the Lambda-CDM model and the inflationary theory is correct. No other cosmological theory can yet explain such a wide range of parameters, from the ratio of the elemental abundances in the early Universe to the structure of the cosmic microwave background, the observed higher abundance of active galactic nuclei in the early Universe and the observed masses of clusters ofgalaxies.
1.4 Big bang theory assumptions
The Big Bang theory depends on two major assumptions: the universality of physical laws, and the Cosmological Principle. The cosmological principle states that on large scales the universe is homogeneous and isotropic.
These ideas were initially taken as postulates, but today there are efforts to test each of them. For example, the first assumption has been tested by observations showing that largest possible deviation of the fine structure constant over much of the age of the universe is of order 10?5.[29] Also, General Relativity has passed stringent tests on the scale of the solar system and binary stars while extrapolation to cosmological scales has been validated by the empirical successes of various aspects of the Big Bang theory.
If the large-scale universe appears isotropic as viewed from Earth, the cosmological principle can be derived from the simpler Copernican Principle, which states that there is no preferred (or special) observer or vantage point. To this end, the cosmological principle has been confirmed to a level of 10?5 via observations of the CMB. The universe has been measured to be homogeneous on the largest scales at the 10% level.
1.4a. Physical law:-
A physical law or scientific law is a scientific generalization based on empirical observations of physical behavior (i.e. the law of nature [1]). Laws of nature are observable. Scientific laws are empirical, describing the observable laws. Empirical laws are typically conclusions based on repeated scientific experiments and simple observations, over many years, and which have become accepted universally within the scientific community. The production of a summary description of our environment in the form of such laws is a fundamental aim of science.
Laws of nature are distinct from religious and civil law, and should not be confused with the concept of natural law. Nor should physical law be confused with law of physics – the term physical law usually covers laws in other sciences (e.g. biology) as well.
Description
Several general properties of physical laws have been identified (see Davies (1992) and Feynman (1965) as noted, although each of the characterizations are not necessarily original to them. Physical laws are:
??? True, at least within their regime of validity. By definition, there have never been repeatable contradicting observations.
??? Universal. They appear to apply everywhere in the universe. (Davies, 1992:82)
??? Simple. They are typically expressed in terms of a single mathematical equation. (Davies)
??? Absolute. Nothing in the universe appears to affect them. (Davies, 1992:82)
??? Stable. Unchanged since first discovered (although they may have been shown to be approximations of more accurate laws??”see “Laws as approximations” below),
??? Omnipotent. Everything in the universe apparently must comply with them (according to observations). (Davies, 1992:83)
??? Generally conservative of quantity. (Feynman, 1965:59)
??? Often expressions of existing homogeneities (symmetries) of space and time. (Feynman)
??? Typically theoretically reversible in time (if non-quantum), although time itself is irreversible. (Feynman)
Often those who understand the mathematics and concepts well enough to understand the essence of the physical laws also feel that they possess an inherent intellectual beauty. Many scientists state that they use intuition as a guide in developing hypotheses, since laws are reflection of symmetries and there is a connection between beauty and symmetry. However, this has not always been the case; Newton himself justified his belief in the asymmetry of the universe because his laws appeared to imply it.
Physical laws are distinguished from scientific theories by their simplicity. Scientific theories are generally more complex than laws; they have many component parts, and are more likely to be changed as the body of available experimental data and analysis develops. This is because a physical law is a summary observation of strictly empirical matters, whereas a theory is a model that accounts for the observation, explains it, relates it to other observations, and makes testable predictions based upon it. Simply stated, while a law notes that something happens, a theory explains why and how something happens.

1.4b. Cosmological Principle:-
The Cosmological Principle is a principle invoked in cosmology that, when applied, severely restricts the large variety of possible cosmological theories. It follows from the observation of the Universe on a large scale, and states that: On large spatial scales, the Universe is homogeneous and isotropic. Or simply put, the universe is the same everywhere on a large scale
Implications
The properties of homogeneity and isotropy assumed by the Cosmological Principle suggest that Earth is not at a preferred place (see the Copernican principle), and that at very large scales the Universe is smooth (i.e. not fractal).
One implication of the cosmological principle is that the largest discrete structures in the universe are in mechanical equilibrium. Homogeneity and isotropy of matter at the largest scales would suggest that the largest discrete structures are parts of a single indiscrete form, like the crumbs which make up the interior of a cake. At extreme cosmological distances, the property of mechanical equilibrium in surfaces lateral to the line of sight can be empirically tested; however, under the assumption of the cosmological principle, it cannot be detected parallel to the line of sight.
Observations of the cosmos reveal a higher density and lower metallicity in the population of galaxies at further distances with respect to Earth.[1] To account for this scientists applying the cosmological principle suggest the unfalsifiable notion that a change in the population of galaxies along the line of sight translates into change of the homogeneous universe as a whole. Cosmologists agree that in accordance with observations of distant galaxies, a universe must be non-static if it follows the cosmological principle. To their benefit, a non-static universe is also implied, independent of these observations of distant galaxies, as the result of applying the cosmological principle to General Relativity.
1.5 Observational evidence:-
The earliest and most direct kinds of observational evidence are the Hubble-type expansion seen in the redshifts of galaxies, the detailed measurements of the cosmic microwave background, and the abundance of light elements (see Big Bang nucleosynthesis). These are sometimes called the three pillars of the big bang theory. Many other lines of evidence now support the picture, notably various properties of the large-scale structure of the cosmos[35] which are predicted to occur due to gravitational growth of structure in the standard Big Bang theory.
1.5a. Hubbles law
Hubbles law is the statement in physical cosmology that the redshift in light coming from distant galaxies is proportional to their distance. The law was first formulated by Edwin Hubble and Milton Humason in 1929[1] after nearly a decade of observations. It is considered the first observational basis for the expanding space paradigm and today serves as one of the pieces of evidence most often cited in support of the Big Bang. The most recent calculation of the proportionality constant used 2003 data from the satellite WMAP combined with other astronomical data, and yielded a value of 70.1 ?± 1.3 (km/s)/Mpc. In August, 2006, a less precise figure was obtained independently using data from NASAs orbital Chandra X-ray Observatory: 77 (km/s)/Mpc or about 2.5?10?18 s?1 with an uncertainty of ?± 15%.[2]

Discovery
A decade before Hubble made his observations, a number of physicists and mathematicians had established a consistent theory of the relationship between space and time by using Einsteins field equations of general relativity. Applying the most general principles to the nature of the universe yielded a dynamic solution that conflicted with the then prevailing notion of a static universe.
FLRW equations
In 1922, Alexander Friedmann derived his Friedmann equations from Einsteins field equations, showing that the universe might expand at a rate calculable by the equations.[3] The parameter used by Friedmann is known today as the scale factor which can be considered as a scale invariant form of the proportionality constant of Hubbles Law. Georges Lemaitre independently found a similar solution in 1927. The Friedmann equations are derived by inserting the metric for a homogeneous and isotropic universe into Einsteins field equations for a fluid with a given density and pressure. This idea of an expanding spacetime would eventually lead to the Big Bang and Steady State theories of cosmology.
Shape of the universe
Before the advent of modern cosmology, there was considerable talk about the size and shape of the universe. In 1920, the famous Shapley-Curtis debate took place between Harlow Shapley and Heber D. Curtis over this issue. Shapley argued for a small universe the size of the Milky Way galaxy and Curtis argued that the universe was much larger. The issue was resolved in the coming decade with Hubbles improved observations.
Combining redshifts with distance measurements
Combining his measurements of galaxy distances with Vesto Sliphers measurements of the redshifts associated with the galaxies, Hubble discovered a rough proportionality of the objects distances. Though there was considerable scatter (now known to be caused by peculiar velocities), Hubble was able to plot a trend line from the 46 galaxies he studied and obtain a value for the Hubble constant of 500 km/s/Mpc (much higher than the currently accepted value due to errors in his distance calibrations). (See cosmic distance ladder for details.)
In 1958, the first good estimate of H0, 75 km/s/Mpc, was published by Allan Sandage,[4] but it would be decades before a consensus was achieved.
The cosmological constant abandoned
After Hubbles discovery was published, Albert Einstein abandoned his work on the cosmological constant (which he had designed to allow for a static solution to his equations). He later termed this work his “greatest blunder” since the assumption of a static universe had prevented him from predicting the expanding universe. Einstein made a famous trip to Mount Wilson in 1931 to thank Hubble for providing the observational basis for modern cosmology.
Interpretation
The discovery of the linear relationship between redshift, interpreted as recessional velocity, and distance yields a straightforward mathematical expression for Hubbles Law as follows:
V=H0D
where
??? v is the recessional velocity, typically expressed in km/s.
??? H0 is Hubbles constant and corresponds to the value of H (often termed the Hubble parameter which is a value that is time dependent) in the Friedmann equations taken at the time of observation denoted by the subscript 0. This value is the same throughout the universe for a given comoving time.
??? D is the comoving proper distance from the galaxy to the observer, measured in megaparsecs (Mpc), in the 3-space defined by given cosmological time. (Recession velocity is just v = dD/dt).
Observability of parameters
Strictly speaking, neither v nor D in the formula are directly observable, because they are properties now of a galaxy, whereas our observations refer to the galaxy in the past, at the time that the light we currently see left it.
For relatively nearby galaxies (redshift z much less than unity), v and D will not have changed much, and v can be estimated using the formula v = zc where c is the speed of light. This gives the empirical relation found by Hubble.
For distant galaxies, v (or D) cannot be calculated from z without specifying a detailed model for how H changes with time. The redshift is not even directly related to the recession velocity at the time the light set out, but it does have a simple interpretation: (1+z) is the factor by which the universe has expanded while the photon was travelling towards the observer.
Expansion velocity vs relative velocity
In using Hubbles law to determine distances, only the velocity due to the expansion of the universe can be used. Since gravitationally interacting galaxies move relative to each other independent of the expansion of the universe, these relative velocities, called peculiar velocities, need to be accounted for in the application of Hubbles law.
The Finger of God effect is one result of this phenomenon discovered in 1938 by Benjamin Kenneally. In systems that are gravitationally bound, such as galaxies or our planetary system, the expansion of space is (more than) annihilated by the attractive force of gravity.

Idealized Hubbles Law
The mathematical derivation of an idealized Hubbles Law for a uniformly expanding universe is a fairly elementary theorem of geometry in 3-dimensional Cartesian/Newtonian coordinate space, which, considered as a metric space, is entirely homogeneous and isotropic (properties do not vary with location or direction). Simply stated the theorem is this:
Any two points which are moving away from the origin, each along straight lines and with speed proportional to distance from the origin, will be moving away from each other with a speed proportional to their distance apart.
In fact this applies to non-Cartesian spaces as long as they are locally homogeneous and isotropic; specifically to the negatively- and positively-curved spaces frequently considered as cosmological models (see shape of the universe).
The Ultimate fate and age of the universe
The ultimate fate of the universe and the age of the universe can both be determined by measuring the Hubble constant today and extrapolating with the observed value of the deceleration parameter, uniquely characterized by values of density parameters (?). A so-called “closed universe” (?>1) comes to an end in a Big Crunch and is considerably younger than its Hubble age. An “open universe” (??1) expands forever and has an age that is closer its Hubble age. For the accelerating universe that we inhabit, the age of the universe is coincidentally very close to the Hubble age.
The value of the Hubble parameter changes over time either increasing or decreasing depending on the sign of the so-called deceleration parameter q which is defined by
In a universe with a deceleration parameter equal to zero, it follows that H = 1/t, where t is the time since the Big Bang. A non-zero, time-dependent value of q simply requires integration of the Friedmann equations backwards from the present time to the time when the comoving horizon size was zero.
It was long thought that q was positive, indicating that the expansion is slowing down due to gravitational attraction. This would imply an age of the universe less than 1/H (which is about 14 billion years). For instance, a value for q of 1/2 (once favoured by most theorists) would give the age of the universe as 2/(3H). The discovery in 1998 that q is apparently negative means that the universe could actually be older than 1/H. In fact, estimates of the age of the universe are, by coincidence, very close to 1/H.
Olbers paradox
The expansion of space summarized by the Big Bang interpretation of Hubbles Law is relevant to the old conundrum known as Olbers paradox: if the universe were infinite, static, and filled with a uniform distribution of stars (notice that this also requires an infinite number of stars), then every line of sight in the sky would end on a star, and the sky would be as bright as the surface of a star. However, the night sky is largely dark. Since the 1600s, astronomers and other thinkers have proposed many possible ways to resolve this paradox, but the currently accepted resolution depends in part upon the Big Bang theory and in part upon the Hubble expansion. In a universe that exists for a finite amount of time, only the light of finitely many stars has had a chance to reach us yet, and the paradox is resolved. Additionally, in an expanding universe distant objects recede from us, which causes the light emanating from them to be redshifted and diminished in brightness. Although both effects contribute, the redshift is the less important of the two; remember the original paradox was couched in terms of a static universe.[5]
Determining the Hubble constant
The value of the Hubble constant is estimated by measuring the redshift of distant galaxies and then determining the distances to the same galaxies (by some other method than Hubbles law). Uncertainties in the physical assumptions used to determine these distances have caused varying estimates of the Hubble constant. For most of the second half of the 20th century the value of H0 was estimated to be between 50 and 90 (km/s)/Mpc.
Disputes over Hubbles constant
The value of the Hubble constant was the topic of a long and rather bitter controversy between Gerard de Vaucouleurs who claimed the value was around 100 and Allan Sandage who claimed the value was near 50.
In 1996, a debate moderated by John Bahcall between Gustav Tammann and Sidney van den Bergh was held in similar fashion to the earlier Shapley-Curtis debate over these two competing values.
This difference was partially resolved with the introduction of the ?CDM model of the universe in the late 1990s.
The ?CDM model
With the ?CDM model observations of high-redshift clusters at X-ray and microwave wavelengths using the Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect, measurements of anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background radiation, and optical surveys all gave a value of around 70 for the constant.
Using Hubble space telescope data
In particular the Hubble Key Project (led by Dr. Wendy L. Freedman, Carnegie Observatories) gave the most accurate optical determination in May 2001 with its final estimate[6] of 72?±8 (km/s)/Mpc, consistent with a measurement of H0 based upon Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect observations of many galaxy clusters having a similar accuracy.
Using WMAP data
The most precise cosmic microwave background radiation determinations were 71?±4 (km/s)/Mpc, by WMAP in 2003, and 70.4+1.5?1.6 (km/s)/Mpc, for measurements up to 2006.[7] The five year release from WMAP in 2008 finds 71.9+2.6?2.7 (km/s)/Mpc.[1]These values arise from fitting a combination of WMAP and other cosmological data to the simplest version of the ?CDM model. If the data is fitted with more general versions, H0 tends to be smaller and more uncertain: typically around 67?±4 (km/s)/Mpc although some models allow values near 63 (km/s)/Mpc.[8]
Using Chandra X-ray Observatory data
In August 2006, using NASAs Chandra X-ray Observatory, a team from NASAs Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) found the Hubble constant to be 77 (km/s)/Mpc, with an uncertainty of about 15%.[9] The consistency of the measurements from all these methods lends support to both the measured value of H0 and the ?CDM model.
Hubbles law has two possible explanations. Either we are at the center of an explosion of galaxies??”which is untenable given the Copernican Principle??”or the universe is uniformly expanding everywhere. This universal expansion was predicted from general relativity by Alexander Friedman in 1922[4] and Georges Lemaitre in 1927,[5] well before Hubble made his 1929 analysis and observations, and it remains the cornerstone of the Big Bang theory as developed by Friedmann, Lemaitre, Robertson and Walker.
The theory requires the relation v = HD to hold at all times, where D is the proper distance, v = dD / dt, and v, H, and D all vary as the universe expands (hence we write H0 to denote the present-day Hubble “constant”). For distances much smaller than the size of the observable universe, the Hubble redshift can be thought of as the Doppler shift corresponding to the recession velocity v. However, the redshift is not a true Doppler shift, but rather the result of the expansion of the universe between the time the light was emitted and the time that it was detected.[36]
That space is undergoing metric expansion is shown by direct observational evidence of the Cosmological Principle and the Copernican Principle, which together with Hubbles law have no other explanation. Astronomical redshifts are extremely isotropic and homogenous,[1] supporting the Cosmological Principle that the universe looks the same in all directions, along with much other evidence. If the redshifts were the result of an explosion from a center distant from us, they would not be so similar in different directions.
Measurements of the effects of the cosmic microwave background radiation on the dynamics of distant astrophysical systems in 2000 proved the Copernican Principle, that the Earth is not in a central position, on a cosmological scale.[37] Radiation from the Big Bang was demonstrably warmer at earlier times throughout the universe. Uniform cooling of the cosmic microwave background over billions of years is explainable only if the universe is experiencing a metric expansion, and excludes the possibility that we are near the unique center of an explosion.
1.5b. Cosmic microwave background radiation
In cosmology, the cosmic microwave background radiation (most often referred as acronyms as CMB but occasionally CMBR, CBR or MBR, also referred to as relic radiation) is a form of electromagnetic radiation discovered in 1965 that fills the entire universe.[1] It has a thermal black body spectrum at a temperature of 2.725 kelvin. Thus the spectrum peaks in the microwave range at a frequency of 160.2 GHz, corresponding to a wavelength of 1.9 mm. Most cosmologists consider this radiation to be the best evidence for the Big Bang model of the universe.

Features
The cosmic microwave background spectrum measured by the FIRAS instrument on the COBE satellite is the most precisely measured black body spectrum in nature. The data points and error bars on this graph are obscured by the theoretical curve.The cosmic microwave background is isotropic to roughly one part in 100,000: the root mean square variations are only 18 ?µK.[2] The Far-Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer (FIRAS) instrument on the NASA Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite has carefully measured the spectrum of the cosmic microwave background. FIRAS compared the CMB with a reference black body and no difference could be seen in their spectra. Any deviations from the black body form that might still remain undetected in the CMB spectrum over the wavelength range from 0.5 to 5 mm must have a weighted rms value of at most 50 parts per million (0.005%) of the CMB peak brightness.[3] This made the CMB spectrum the most precisely measured black body spectrum in nature.
The cosmic microwave background, and its level of isotropy, are both predictions of Big Bang theory. In the theory, the early universe was made up of a hot plasma of photons, electrons and baryons. The photons were constantly interacting with the plasma through Thomson scattering. As the universe expanded, adiabatic cooling caused the plasma to cool until it became favourable for electrons to combine with protons and form hydrogen atoms. This happened at around 3,000 K or when the universe was approximately 379,000[4] years old (z=1088). At this point, the photons scattered off the now neutral atoms and began to travel freely through space. This process is called recombination or decoupling (referring to electrons combining with nuclei and to the decoupling of matter and radiation respectively).
The photons have continued cooling ever since; they have now reached 2.725 K and their temperature will continue to drop as long as the universe continues expanding. Accordingly, the radiation from the sky we measure today comes from a spherical surface, called the surface of last scattering. This represents the collection of points in space (currently around 46 billion light-years from the Earth??”see observable universe) at which the decoupling event happened long enough ago (less than 400,000 years after the Big Bang, 13.7 billion years ago) that the light from that part of space is just reaching observers.
The big bang theory suggests that the cosmic microwave background fills all of observable space, and that most of the radiation energy in the universe is in the cosmic microwave background, which makes up a fraction of roughly 5?10-5 of the total density of the universe.[5]
Two of the greatest successes of the big bang theory are its prediction of its almost perfect black body spectrum and its detailed prediction of the anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background. The recent Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe has precisely measured these anisotropies over the whole sky down to angular scales of 0.2 degrees.[6] These can be used to estimate the parameters of the standard Lambda-CDM model of the big bang. Some information, such as the shape of the Universe, can be obtained straightforwardly from the cosmic microwave background, while others, such as the Hubble constant, are not constrained and must be inferred from other measurements.[7]

Relationship to the Big Bang
Measurements of the CMB have made the inflationary Big Bang theory the standard model of the earliest eras of the universe. The standard hot big bang model of the universe requires that the initial conditions for the universe are a Gaussian random field with a nearly scale invariant or Harrison-Zeldovich spectrum. This is, for example, a prediction of the cosmic inflation model. This means that the initial state of the universe is random, but in a clearly specified way in which the amplitude of the primeval inhomogeneities is 10-5. Therefore, meaningful statements about the inhomogeneities in the universe need to be statistical in nature. This leads to cosmic variance in which the uncertainties in the variance of the largest scale fluctuations observed in the universe are difficult to accurately compare to theory.
Temperature
The cosmic microwave background radiation and the cosmological red shift are together regarded as the best available evidence for the Big Bang (BB) theory. The discovery of the CMB in the mid-1960s curtailed interest in alternatives such as the steady state theory. The CMB gives a snapshot of the Universe when, according to standard cosmology, the temperature dropped enough to allow electrons and protons to form hydrogen atoms, thus making the universe transparent to radiation. When it originated some 400,000 years after the Big Bang ??” this time period is generally known as the “time of last scattering” or the period of recombination or decoupling ??” the temperature of the Universe was about 3,000 K. This corresponds to an energy of about 0.25 eV, which is much less than the 13.6 eV ionization energy of hydrogen. Since then, the temperature of the radiation has dropped by a factor of roughly 1100 due to the expansion of the Universe. As the universe expands, the CMB photons are redshifted, making the radiations temperature inversely proportional to the Universes scale length. For details about the reasoning that the radiation is evidence for the Big Bang, see Cosmic background radiation of the Big Bang.The power spectrum of the cosmic microwave background radiation temperature anisotropy in terms of the angular scale (or multipole moment). The data shown come from the WMAP (2006), Acbar (2004) Boomerang (2005), CBI (2004) and VSA (2004) instruments.

Microwave background observations
Subsequent to the discovery of the CMB, hundreds of cosmic microwave background experiments have been conducted to measure and characterize the signatures of the radiation. The most famous experiment is probably the NASA Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite that orbited in 1989??“1996 and which detected and quantified the large scale anisotropies at the limit of its detection capabilities. Inspired by the initial COBE results of an extremely isotropic and homogeneous background, a series of ground- and balloon-based experiments quantified CMB anisotropies on smaller angular scales over the next decade. The primary goal of these experiments was to measure the angular scale of the first acoustic peak, for which COBE did not have sufficient resolution. These measurements were able to rule out cosmic strings as the leading theory of cosmic structure formation, and suggested cosmic inflation was the right theory. During the 1990s, the first peak was measured with increasing sensitivity and by 2000 the BOOMERanG experiment reported that the highest power fluctuations occur at scales of apporoximately one degree. Together with other cosmological data, these results implied that the geometry of the Universe is flat. A number of ground-based interferometers provided measurements of the fluctuations with higher accuracy over the next three years, including the Very Small Array, Degree Angular Scale Interferometer (DASI) and the Cosmic Background Imager (CBI). DASI made the first detection of the polarization of the CMB and the CBI provided the first E-mode polarization spectrum with compelling evidence that it is out of phase with the T-mode spectrum.
In June 2001, NASA launched a second CMB space mission, WMAP, to make much more precise measurements of the large scale anisotropies over the full sky. The first results from this mission, disclosed in 2003, were detailed measurements of the angular power spectrum to below degree scales, tightly constraining various cosmological parameters. The results are broadly consistent with those expected from cosmic inflation as well as various other competing theories, and are available in detail at NASAs data center for Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) (see links below). Although WMAP provided very accurate measurements of the large angular-scale fluctuations in the CMB (structures about as large in the sky as the moon), it did not have the angular resolution to measure the smaller scale fluctuations which had been observed using previous ground-based interferometers.
A third space mission, the Planck Surveyor, is to be launched in 2008. Planck employs both HEMT radiometers as well as bolometer technology and will measure the CMB on smaller scales than WMAP. Unlike the previous two space missions, Planck is a collaboration between NASA and ESA (the European Space Agency). Its detectors got a trial run at the Antarctic Viper telescope as ACBAR (Arcminute Cosmology Bolometer Array Receiver) experiment ??“ which has produced the most precise measurements at small angular scales to date ??“ and at the Archeops balloon telescope. Additional ground-based instruments such as the South Pole Telescope in Antarctica and the proposed Clover Project, Atacama Cosmology Telescope and the QUIET telescope in Chile will provide additional data not available from satellite observations, possibly including the B-mode polarization.

CHAPTERIII
VEDIC EXPOSITIONS ON CREATION OF THE UNIVERSE
The Vedic Seers present several cosmogonies in explaining the creation of the Universe. The Nasadiya hymns (RV.X.129) have discussed the objective aspect of the creation of the Universe.
In the beginning, things undoubtedly began but what about the beginning itself ???before??? the actual ???beginning??? The beginning is precisely the beginning, because it has no ???before,??? because it is itself begi

Ethnic Groups and Discrimination

Ethnic Groups and Discrimination

Racism as a social invention in and of itself became a breeding ground for many of the

social ills of today, such as, racial profiling, capital punishment, police brutality, predatory

lending, No Child Left Behind, welfare reform, affirmative action and racial disparities in

healthcare, academic achievement and home ownership.

I personally belong to the African American ethnic group. We never colonized another

group of individuals nor did we immigrate to this country. During the 15h and 16th centuries, the

Portuguese, Dutch and English realized the profit value that a market in human capital would

provide and decided to travel to Africa to enslave and export from their homeland millions of its

inhabitants as slave labor for distribution to the West Indian sugar plantations, and the cotton and

tobacco plantations of the colonies in the New World. My ancestors were packed like sardines

in the hulls of slave ships under the most horrible conditions imaginable. As many as 1.5 million

perished as a result of illness, suicide, insurrection, and sometimes murder by example (Rediker,

2007).

Survivors of the voyage were dropped of the boat into a racist social structure where

Whites felt that God had deemed them inherently superior to others. Considered non-human and

treated as property, Africans were auctioned or sold for rum and sugar that was sent back to

England. They could not possess property, marry or enter into contracts, and had to abide by

many laws or be punished if those laws were broken. Africans were punished for the slightest

infraction; running away would most likely be a death sentence, with almost no exception. The

Africans??™ ethnic category was obvious, and cinched their place as a subordinate group who

would endure a combination of racism (described above), prejudice (inherently hated, despised

and feared by whites for no apparent reason other than being black), and segregation (physically

separated in workplace, residence and social functions) for the next 400 years.

African-Americans suffered the inequality that exists in the labor market and were not

privy to the primary labor market with its high incomes, fringe benefits and job security.

Limited education options forced African-Americans to participate in the secondary labor market

and to pursue low or unskilled jobs with low returns to education or experience, little training

and even less job security than their White counterparts. Dual labor market practices prevented

African-Americans from obtaining a substantive pay structure and benefits. As a result, they

were forced to live in substandard housing in distressed neighborhoods with poor access to

health care.

???African-Americans and the poor are often forced to take on an unfair share of the costs

and sacrifices that must be made to meet the government??™s environmental regulations??? (Center

for Environmental Justice, 2009). In 1910, African-Americans owned 218, 972 farms. By 1914,

55 black banks were in operation to assist with financing. By 1992, after African-Americans

began to move northward after WWI and WWII, The Great Depression, and farms essentially

stolen from black farmers through deceptive financial practices the numbers of black farms

dropped to 2,498 (Center for Environmental Justice, 2009).

Affirmative action was intended to remedy racial exclusion practices by putting policies

and initiatives in place to combat and eliminate discrimination based on race, sex, color, religion,

or national origin. These equal protection laws were passed to make discrimination illegal, but

have met with opposition on the grounds of ???reverse discrimination and unwarranted

preferences??? (Sykes, M.)

African-Americans were among the victims of the redlining practices of mortgage

lenders who refused to make loans on any properties in neighborhoods they considered to have

an undesirable population or an infiltration of it which would cause an area to be sentenced to

death because of its ethnicity. Research has even shown racial inequities in the use of

institutionalized care for elderly African-Americans who were admitted to nursing homes

between half and three quarters of the rate of elderly whites (Belgrave, L.L., Wykle, M.L. &

Choi, J.M., 1993). African-Americans are still victims of racial profiling by police, the housing

industry, schools systems, retail stores, and many other public institutions. Sociologist, author

and Professor of African American and African Studies at Ohio State University, K. Sue Jewell,

states that ???the federal government??™s programs designed to help the disadvantaged have not only

failed to help African Americans, but nearly forty years later they may have left many African

American families worse off than they were before???. She also argues that policies put in place

by both liberals and conservatives since the 1960s may have done more harm than good to Black

institutions without bettering the situation of the disadvantaged.

Regarding my own cultural identification, I identify with both equally. I am an

American.

Emmett J. Nixon
Axia College
[email protected]

References

Belgrave, LL, Wykle, ML, Choi, JM

Health, double jeopardy, and culture: the use of institutionalization by African-

Americans, Gerontologist 1993 33: 379-385, Retrieved July 26, 2009

http://gerontologist.gerontologyjournals.org/cgi/citmgrgca=thegeron;33/3/379,

Davis, K, & Moore, W.E. (1945). Some principles of stratification. American

Sociological Review. 10, 242-249

Jewell, K.S., Survival of the african-american family: the institutional impact of u.s. social

policy (Praeger, 2003). Retrieved July 26, 2009

http://researchnews.osu.edu/archive/aframfam.htm.

Rediker, M. (2007). The slave ship, a human history. Viking Press. Penguin Group.

October 4, Retrieved July 26, 2009.

http://whgbetc.com/slave-ship-marcus-rediker.pdf

Sykes, M., National NOW Times, August 1995.

Retrieved July 26, 2009. http://www.now.org/nnt/08-95/affirmhs.html.

The home owners loan corporation, Retrieved July 26, 2009

http://syracusethenandnow.org/Redlining/HOLC_Maps.htm

Timeline, web site of the Public Broadcasting Service series “Homecoming… Sometimes

I am Haunted by Memories of Red Dirt and Clay,”

Retrieved July 26, 2009. http://www.pbs.org/homecoming/timeline.html. .

What is environmental justice Do blacks want and really need it

Retrieved July 26, 200. http://www.nationalcenter.org/CEJ.html.

Big Auto

Big Drive Auto

Big Drive Auto
There is evidence that suggests the economic futures can be forecasted by the automotive industry, and as a result this paper will discuss the economic projections of Big Drive Auto, a multistate, multi-manufacture of cars and trucks. The company sells vehicles and services parts for repair, in addition to conducting significant contributions in the motor oil, coolant, and replacement tire industries. In an effort of remaining successful, Big Auto will need to be able to forecast, based on the records kept from the past ten years, its future business needs and areas of growth if they are in to stay ahead of the industry. This information will assist management in making future production plans for the organization because it will be based off of the companies??™ previous sales of parts, service and auto sales, and an evaluation of the revenue generated in spite of fluctuations in the economy. Additionally, this historical data will be used from previous years to demonstrate future pricing strategy. Product recommendations for the company will be in part considered by management??™s intuition and awareness of where the economy was in recent years and is likely to lean towards what will assist the company in moving forward. Moving forward, management of the organization will need to predict with some certainty a solid strategy to deal with how well the automotive industry could fair in the coming years based on mathematical equations, which take into consideration economic analysis, to be inclusive of operations, costs, and productivity, as this will allow them to have some level of precision in their projections (Duffy, 2008). The paper will conclude with a summary of what is believed to be the direction of the company.

Pricing Strategy Recommendations
The company must? determine the demand for the? products and services rendered. Further, it must consider how productive the function is, in particular, the supply of its inputs. The pricing? services? are critical, primarily because it drives the firm??™s economics and defines value at a given price, in addition to enabling the company to reach its revenue and market share goals for the automotive industry.? They will also need to consider what the market will pay for automotive products and services. ? To achieve this pricing strategy, management will have to consider some important variables such as operating the business in excellence, offering the best products, being innovative, and guaranteeing customer satisfaction at all times. Based on the research, current trends in the automotive industry suggests that many manufacturer??™s pricing strategy is more of a science than an art, given the access consumers now have to the internet. Many buyers now are more educated on wholesale versus retail costs and as a result, from the standpoint of the consumer, they have more wiggle room to negotiate price (Automotive News, 2000). Other research suggests that from a manufacturer??™s or a dealer??™s standpoint, there is less wiggle room when the price they select is close to actual costs, and as a result they pacify consumers by offering service packages, accessories, or a protection package. They call it a transaction based pricing versus a no budge pricing and as a result, they meet the demands of consumers in nontraditional ways, as opposed to merely lowering the cost of the automobile (Wilson & Harris, 2010). As such, it is recommended that Big Auto follows suit given the trend of the industry.
Recommendations for Non-Price Barriers to Entry
Organizations face challenges with entry barriers. These barriers are ways of preventing them from entering a market industry. The first recommendation for non-price barriers to entry is placing restrictions on advertisement, as restricting the types of products advertised, the amount of advertising allowed, and advertisements that name competing products are huge factors. Most companies rely on such approaches as an effort to generate customer awareness. Therefore, the advertisement recommendation as an entry barrier will help to increase expansion within the auto market.
? ? ? ? ?  The next recommendation for non-price barriers to entry is safety. Businesses must be able to adhere to all the safety and health requirements set by Big Drive. There must be strict safety requirements because many organizations may be lacking in this area, and the level of products and service offered by Big Drive Auto should not be jeopardized, so as to decrease any liability.
The last recommendation for non-price barriers to entry is product quality. Product qualities are the technical standards for determining a products quality level. Product testing performed in one firm may be of little or no value in another. Therefore, a product testing must be approved by Big Drive to ensure that all product requirements are met. A monopolist seeking to maximize total profit will employ the same rationale as a profit-seeking firm in a competitive
industry. If producing is preferable to shutting down, it will produce up to the output at which marginal revenue equals marginal cost (MR=MC)(McConnell & Flynn, 2009). Firms can enter the monopolistic competitions market fairly easily, and in doing so they increase the available supply, and drive down the market price to only normal profits. The monopolistically competitive firm maximizes its profit to minimizes its loss in the short run just as other firms do by producing the output at which marginal revenue equals marginal cost-MR =MC (McConnell & Flynn, 2009).
? ? ? ? ?  Organizations face many entry barriers. These barriers are ways of preventing them from entering a market industry. The absence of any effective entry barriers permits the entry of a very large number of firms, which provide the basis of pure competition. So barriers to entry are pertinent not only to the extreme case of pure monopoly but also to other market structures in which there is some degree of monopolistic conditions and behavior.
Product differentiation
One of the biggest decisions the management of Big Auto will need to make pertains to production differentiation because ultimately this is the way the business will distinguish itself from their competition. Once the recommendations are made by management, the company will need to review how it will move forward with implementing these changes over the next five years. The first recommendation for Big Drive Auto is to trademark its name. They will need to be known as ???the place??? for car and trucks sales, service and parts. They already provide services to vehicles as well as a line of products in the parts department and trademarking their name, in addition to the services they offer will set them apart. Further, a trademark of their name would make them more inline with companies such as Dell, Starbucks, UGG and Valvoline who already are known as brand names, as these companies are considered brand specific.
The second recommendation is to redesign the packaging, making the trademark synonymous with all product packaging. Plans for redesigned packaging will also allow them to be more exclusive, which would help the company rise to the next level. All parts in the line would be repackaged under the new trademark. The idea is reintroduce the entire line of parts after a package redesign, securing the trademark of their name, and serving as a boost to their image, highlighting them as an innovative company offering superior parts and service to its consumers. Also if a patent could be secured by Big Drive, a higher price could be considered for the main line of parts while offering a generic substitute as a way of capitalizing on several different markets, as this idea would open up additional opportunities for the company to increase revenue. Setting goals such as a patented product would open the doors to expanding a line of Big Drive exclusive parts which could only be purchased through them would ensure exclusivity to the line. Also according to patent laws, they would seal their own brand for twenty years. Patents and patent laws aim to protect the inventor from rivals who would use the invention without having shared in the effort and expense of developing it. (McConnell, Brue, & Flynn, 2009).
According to the research (McConnell, Brue, & Flynn, 2009) monopolistically competitive industries are much more competitive than they are monopolistic. Product differentiation would be in the future of Big Drive to remain competitive. As is a multistate dealer of several manufacturers??™ cars and trucks the company would have exclusive rights. They could reintroduce the company with a retrained staff on products for which there are no close substitutes. Raising the standards of sales and services only offered by them could serve to block all potential competition. The purely competitive seller faces a perfectly elastic demand at the price determined by market supply and demand (McConnell, Brue, & Flynn, 2009).
According to the scenario the oil and tire division has fluctuated some over the last 10 years. Service has steadily increased so it would not be urgent to make any major changes to this aspect of the company until later, however because the most revenue has been consistently generated in this area and because some of the recommendations given will cause an increase in costs; Big Auto will continue to offer great service so as to not impact any of its revenue. However, the oil side of Big Drive needs the most attention hence making the trade name and brand name the priority. Purposeful behavior simply means that people make decisions with some desired outcome in mind. (McConnell, Brue, & Flynn, 2009). Ultimately, this is the goal for Big Drive Auto to become the people??™s choice when considering where to go for goods and services as outlined in the recommendations made.
Conclusion
According to the research, managerial economics pays attention to business in a way never done by other branches of economics, because it combines microeconomics, operations research, and management science in a way so as to produce practical projections as they relate to a company??™s future (Duffy, 2008). As a result, how a business determines its pricing plays a critical role, as they must balance what the market in willing to pay versus the costs associated with production. Given the growth of market based pricing, the automotive industry is now at a point where they are consistently offering less wiggle room in the negotiation of pricing and as a result, are finding alternative ways to satisfy consumers (Wilson & Harris, 2010). To remain a powerhouse in the industry, it is recommended that Big Auto does the same. In an effort on maintaining current levels of revenue in addition to increasing those levels over the years; it is recommended that Big Auto focus much of its energy on trademarking its brand. Based on the ten year statistical analysis the company sees its record numbers in the area of service revenue. Trademarking their service packages could serve to drive additional business their way, thus further increasing the revenue. Because servicing one??™s car could very well be considered an inelastic service, Big Auto has some freedom in continuing to increase their prices. By creating quality parts that must specifically be used for the cars they sell and by offering a level of service consumers are not able to get elsewhere, in addition to providing a tried and true brand name; this can be another way of them solidifying their market. While there will always be come type of competition from manufacturers who create less expensive cars that require less expensive service, there are also a market of individuals who do not mind paying higher prices for great quality and great service, both of which Big Auto will continue to provide in the building of its business and clientele. By implementing market based pricing that incorporates giving consumers additional services or accessories they can only obtain through Big Auto, the company will be able to remain a major force in the industry because the exemplary service and competitively priced products will all be back by their trademark, given its customers the security of knowing all products and services have solid foundation with a reputable company.

References
Big Drive Auto . (2010). Retrieved Jan. 11, 2011, from www.mycampus.phoenix.edu

McConnell, C. R., Brue, S. L., & Flynn, S. M. (2009). Monopolistic Competition and Oligopoly. In N. Fox (Ed.), (chapter 11 pp. 223 -224) Retrieved from University of Phoenix

Duffy, F. (2008). Traditional Managerial Economics. In ,? Traditional Managerial Economics — Research Starters Business? (p. 1). Great Neck Publishing. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.

Pricing a car is now a science, no longer an art. (2000).? Automotive News, 75(5892), 12. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.

Wilson, A., & Harris, D. (2010). Shaking up the pricing model.? Automotive News, 84(6408), 1. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.

Ethnic Groups and Discrimination

Ethnic Groups and Discrimination
Almost a million Irish Immigrants came to America in the years of what is called the Great Potato Famine. Never has there been such a poor large group of individuals that has entered the United States of America as the poor refugees of Ireland had. The Irish were considered the lowest on the society scale and were without any help. Just to survive daily was to be a battle for basic human survival for them. The Irish Immigrants were not only faced with the hardship of survival but also dealt with all kinds of discrimination, which included relining, double jeopardy, segregation, and even institutional discrimination.
Once the Irish Immigrants arrived at the ports they were greeted by people called runners. Runners were hired to drag an immigrant to a place where they could have shelter and warm food for extra ordinarily large amounts of money. The Irish were forced to live in shabby tenements, down in the damp cellars and basements. They were forced to live with other immigrants in these squalors so called rooms for rent. Outside many cities where what were known as Shanty Town or Irish Town, the Irish were living in lean-tos which were no better than the cellars or basements when they first arrived. The Irish immigrants were considered filth and a bad influence in the nearby cities. Many Irish immigrants were brought to America to work because they were known as hard workers and they needed money. Although most of the Irish immigrants had employment and were not poor, they were still forced to live in their communities with the other Irish immigrants. This enabled them to live slightly better than their counterparts in the tenements (Hy Kinsella, 2008). The Irish immigrants were constantly dissuaded from renting any vacant apartments outside their community and were sent back to those areas. The segregation and relining was largely prevalent in the 1850.

The Irish had to work dangerous jobs in factories, building canals, working the coal mines, and building the railroads. When the Irish immigrants applied for an advertised position promising decent wages, if they were hired the wages would be reduced to 50 cents a day. Any Irish applicant was constantly bullied into accepting the lower position and wages. Discrimination was a constant issue the Irish; they were exposed to it every day. The rich businessman benefited by hiring the Irish immigrants, getting rid of stubborn workers or troublesome workers that wanted higher pay with the Irish workers. This led to further apprehension of the Irish Immigrants, the Irish were often harassed by the American Protective Association (APA) and the Ku Klux Klan (Library of Congress, 2002). Discrimination invaded the ???Help Wanted??? ads for domestic help because the ads had ???NINA,??? which meant No Irish Need Apply.
Protestants were native born citizens and had nothing but hatred for the Irish Catholic Immigrants. Along with the discrimination of conditions, their ability to work cheap was not enough to bear; they also had to suffer the religious battles. Irish was not enough to battle discrimination against, now they had to battle being Catholic. Verbal attacks often led to numerous amounts of mob violence. There began groups emerging such as the Native American Party because of the anti-Catholic and the anti-immigrant attitudes in 1840.
As slavery took hold and shook the nation any troubles the Native Americans had with the Irish Immigrants took second place. Over 140,000 Irish Immigrants were enlisted in the Union Army as the American Civil War came about. Although the Irish Immigrants still had the discrimination, segregations, redlining, and employment wage issues they proved themselves loyal and dedicated soldiers. After the Civil War the Irish continued to provide the work necessary to expand during the industrialization of America. ???They were carpenters assistants, boat-builders, dock-hands, bartenders and waiters. In an era when there were virtually no governmental constraints on American capitalism, the Irish organized the first trade unions and conducted strikes when necessary for higher wages, shorter hours, and safer working conditions??? (The History Place, 2000).

The Irish donated faithfully to their Catholic Churches, as these churches became the heart of their families; assisting families with education, support and activities. These Catholic Churches also protected the Irish communities from the prejudices they faced.
Once the Irish were eligible to vote, they used this opportunity to benefit their communities. New York could no longer politically ignore the large numbers of Irish. ???Sons and grandsons of Famine immigrants joined the democratic party in droves??? (The History Place, 2000). The Irish Immigrants learned their way out was through voting; they began becoming organized and had candidates as city council and later the Mayor??™s Office.
Since I have mixed blood in my background, I proudly stand for the Irish, Swedish, Scotsman, and German heritage. The Immigrants may have our own struggles and demons to battle but we remember who we are and where we came from. We have our backbones and we use it every chance we have to battle our way out of a situation. America may be called the melting pot of the world, but it made us who we are today.

Reference:
Hy Kinsella (2008). Irish Immigrants in America during the 19th Century. Retrieved
November 21, 2008, from http://www.kinsella.org/history/histira.htm

The History Place (2000). Irish Potato Famine. Retrieved November 18, 2008, from
http://www.historyplace.com/worldhistory/famine/Amer.htm

Library of Congress (2002). Immigration-Irish. Retrieved November 21, 2008, from
http://memory.loc.gov/learn/features/immig/irish4.html

Big Auto Drive

Organizational culture is the personality of the organization. Culture is comprised of the assumptions, values, norms and tangible signs of the organization members and their behaviors. Members of an organization will than come to sense the particular culture of an organization. Culture is sometimes difficult to express distinctly, but everyone knows it when they sense it. An executive of a large company was once asked what he thought ???organizational culture??? meant. He gave essentially the same answer that a Supreme Court Justice once gave in attempting to define pornography: ???I can??™t define it, but I know it when I see it.???(Organizational Culture p.572) For example, the culture of a large, for-profit corporation is quite different than that of a hospital which is quite different than that of a university administration worker. You can tell the culture of an organization by looking at the arrangement of furniture, what they brag about, what members wear, etc. similar to what you can use to get a feeling about someones personality. I will address the established methods of control, describe which management practices, and explain how the new structure could affect the organizations future.
Concept of Culture
The concept of culture is particularly important when attempting to manage organization wide change. Practitioners are coming to realize that, despite the best laid plans, organizational change must include not only changing structures and processes, but also changing the corporate culture as well Theres been a great deal of literature generated over the past decade about the concept of organizational culture particularly in regard to learning how to change organizational culture. Organizational change efforts are rumored to fail the vast majority of the time. Usually, this failure is credited to lack of understanding about the strong role of culture and the role it plays in organizations. Thats one of the reasons that many strategic planners now place as much emphasis on identifying strategic values as they do mission and vision. There are different types of culture just like there are different types of personality. Researcher Jeffrey Sonnenfeld identified the following four types of cultures. Academy, baseball, club, and fortness culture. Academy Culture is defined as Employees that are highly skilled and tend to stay in the organization, while working their way up the ranks. The organization provides a stable environment in which employees can development and exercise their skills. Examples are universities, hospitals, large corporations, etc. Baseball culture is defined as Employees are “free agents” who have highly prized skills. They are in high demand and can rather easily get jobs elsewhere. This type of culture exists in fast-paced, high-risk organizations, such as investment banking, advertising, etc. Club culture is defined as the most important requirement for employees in this culture is to fit into the group. Usually employees start at the bottom and stay with the organization. The organization promotes from within and highly values seniority. Examples are the military, some law firms, etc. Fortness culture is defined as Employees dont know if theyll be laid off or not. These organizations often undergo massive reorganization. There are many opportunities for those with timely, specialized skills. Examples are savings and loans, large car companies, etc. (Defining Cultures importance p.28)
Verizon Culture Organization
The company I work for is a Fortness culture. I currently work for Verizon Business Corporation. At Verizon I am currently a sales consultant I sell Verizon home services telephone, television, and internet. My company is a private company where job security is a major issue within our company. Our job performance is highly watched by our mangers and supervisors, we as sales rep??™s receive bonuses for the number of sales we close per day, per week, and per month. The power that the company uses to excite the sales rep to sale is reward power. Reward Power is defined as the target person complies in order to obtain rewards controlled by the agent. (French and Raven power taxonomy p6) At the end of the day the person in the office who holds the greatest number of sales has the opportunity to win anything from gift cards, cell phones, will gaming systems, etc. at the end of the month the five rep??™s who has the highest number of sales can win flat screen TV??™s, Dyson vacuum cleaners, gift cards etc. The three sale reps that holds the greatest number of sales at the end of the year wins a trip for two for five days to Hawaii. The bonuses and perks of the position are great but the company is lacking job security. Upon hiring we must sign a waiver agreeing that the company can fire us for anytime or any reason. So a lot of the older sales rep who won the trip to Hawaii just works to keep their position at the company and not what the company is looking for in revenue each month. Within our company I would change a lot of the policies and the producers. I know change isn??™t an easy task within an organization but it will make the benefit the organization, individuals, groups, teams, and the organization future.
Understanding Culture Change
Changing a organizational culture can be one of the toughest task a person will ever attempt to take on. A organizational culture was formed over years of interaction between the participants in the organization. An individual attempting to change the accepted organizational culture will seem as a uphill battle. Organizational cultures form for a reason. Perhaps the current organizational culture matches the style and comfort zone of the company founder. Culture frequently echoes the prevailing management style. Since managers tend to hire people just like themselves, the established organizational culture is reinforced by new hires. (Understanding Cultures p.45) Organizational culture grows over time. People are comfortable with the current organizational culture. For individuals to consider culture change, usually uneasy events must occur. An event that makes them uneasy such as facing bankruptcy, a significant loss of sales and customers, or losing millions dollars, might get the employees attention. Even then, to recognize that the organizational culture is the culprit and to take steps to change it is a tough journey. In no way do I mean to trivialize the difficulty of the experience of organizational culture change by summarizing it, here are some good ideas about culture change that can help organizations grow and transform. When people in an organization realize and recognize that their current organizational culture needs to transform to support the organizations success and progress, change can occur. But change is not pretty and change is not easy. Individuals must first understand the current culture that there in or working for. At Verizon I understand that the vision of the culture started off great but it was lacking the Reward Power for the senior rep??™s who??™s been there for a few years and won some of the incentives in the past. Once the individuals understand their current organizational culture, the individual in the organization must then , and decide what the organizational culture should look like to support success. What vision does the organization have for its future and how must the culture change to support the accomplishment of that vision. Finally, the individuals in the organization must decide to change their behavior to create the desired organizational culture. This is the hardest step in culture change.
Culture Change
The individual who wants the change within the organization must first plan where it wants to go before trying to make any changes in the organizational culture. With a clear picture of where the organization is currently, the organization can plan where it wants to be next. A good approach for taking these steps and change are to look at the Mission, vision, and values. One must provide a framework for the assessment and evaluation of the current organizational culture, what the organization needs to develop a picture of its desired future. What does the organization want to create for the future Mission, vision, and values should be examined for both the strategic and the value based components of the organization. The individual management team needs to first answer questions such as: What are the five most important values you would like to see represented in your organizational culture Are these values compatible with your current organizational culture Do they exist now If not, why not If they are so important, why are you not attaining these values (Understanding culture change p.45-49)

Conclusion
In conclusion organizational culture is the personality of the organization. Culture is comprised of the assumptions, values, norms and tangible signs of the organization members and their behaviors. Members of an organization will than come to sense the particular culture of an organization. Culture is sometimes difficult to express distinctly, but everyone knows it when they sense it. At my current company Verizon Business the management style of power that is used is Reward Power. Reward Power is very successful for new hires coming into the company because it excites the new hires to sell Verizon home products. Reward Power doesn??™t excite the older reps that has been with the company for five plus years. The excitement of the bonuses seemed to have died down because the seasoned rep??™s have already conquered the highest goal of the company. The restructuring strategy I choose to take to change the organization structure is to look at the company??™s mission, vision, and values as well as the older employees who have lost sparked for the organization. The new structure would affect the company in a positive way. New hires would be excited to sale and the older employees can come up with different bonuses they would like to reach and earn while there at the company. The change in the organization will be getting the employees feedback on different prizes they would like to see in the future and in turn it would offer job security because the older reps wouldn??™t be doing just what needs to be done in order to keep they job.

Ethnic Groups and Discrimination

The group in which I identify with most and want to learn more about is the Native American tribe Lac Courte Oreilles Tribe of the Lake Superior Band of Chippewa Indians. The Chippewa Indians were to be found near the Mississippi River and along the northern border of Michigan.
The Chippewa tribe and all Native Americans suffered prejudice, segregation, and racism almost to the point of extermination. During the winter of 1850-51, a misleading plan was arranged against the Wisconsin Chippewa; Remove them from their homelands, move them west to Sandy Lake at Fond du Lac, and refused their annuities. The adult males were required to bring his family and once the families arrived, the rations and goods were purposefully delayed until the winter. This did not allow the tribe to prepare for the winter season, resulting in hundreds perishing (St. Germaine, n.d.). The pilgrims killed off thousands of Native Americans; they took their homes and moved them to special Native American reserves. Land that they held dear and close to their heart was snatch away, sacred mountains were carved into to honor presidents, and they were chained and sold in to slavery. In addition they called them names like redskins and wet back. ???The United States formulated a policy during the 19th century toward Native Americans that followed the precedents established during the colonial period. The government policy was not to antagonize the Native Americans unnecessarily. Yet if the needs of tribes interfered with the needs, or even the whims, of Whites, Whites were to have precedence??? (University of Phoenix, 2006, p. 153). When European pioneers began their journey to North America and started settlements, they found it inhabited by Native Americans. The Europeans noticed the differences such as darker skin, traditions, and a different language between themselves, and the Native Americans. Because the European settlers thought they were different they decided that they must be alienated. Prejudice and racism was established by separating the Whites and Native Americans. Native Americans were forced to be looked upon as lesser peoples. In addition to segregation the Native Americans were even forced off their lands to live on reservations.
The Native Americans were affected by environmental justice issues because they were required to live in unsafe surroundings with contamination and other harmful chemicals. Native Americans have been pushed into Dual labor markets, ensuring they do not make the same salaries as others. Some of these jobs have little or no benefits and some are even dangerous and unsafe. Many have also encountered redlining, glass wall, and glass ceiling. These issues make it difficult to further advance in their careers. A Native American with better credentials may not receive the job because of the fact they are Native American. Even though these issues do not carrying the severity they did long ago, they are still there and dealt with in certain parts of the country.
Affirmative action and the Native Americans are offered equal opportunities when concerning jobs, so most people think. When in truth jobs depend on the areas in which the Native Americans live. There remain other parts of the country that still believe that the Native Americans do not have the rights to be equal.
???Environment Justice Issues ensures that all people have the opportunity to live in safe environments away from pollution and other harmful chemicals??? (University of Phoenix, 2006). Environmental issues bring together many of the concerns previously considered surrounding Native Americans: land rights, environmental justice, economic development, and spiritualism. Many environmental issues more than a century old still plague the Native Americans such as land disputes arising from treaties and agreements and the land and the natural resources it holds continue to be major concerns (University of Phoenix, p. 178).
The list of injustices starts with ???The Northwest Ordinance of 1787, According to Politics and Civil Rights (1995-2010),???The utmost good faith shall always be observed toward the Indians. Their lands and property shall never be taken from them without their consent.” The Intercourse Act of 1790 said Indian land could only be taken by treaty. In spite of numerous treaties, however, Indian lands were routinely invaded and taken by whites, often by use of force to overcome Native American resistance. In 1854, pressured by railroad interests, the federal government abolished much of the former Indian Territory to create the Kansas and Nebraska Territories. The Dawes Act of 1887 set Native American policy for decades, breaking up their lands, encouraging farming rather than hunting, replacing native languages with English, and in general promoting assimilation and destruction of traditional life. Native Americans became the poorest racial group in the United States??? (Native Americans: Trails of Tears).
I identify with both the Native Americans and the United States mainstream culture. In the recent past I have partaken in more Native American traditions and spiritual guidance. The topic discussed in this research paper has amplified my interest enough to continue my search for answers in the Native American culture even after this course is completed.

References:
University of Phoenix. (2006). The Native Americans. Retrieved from University of Phoenix, ETH/125 website
Politics and Civil Rights. (1995-2010). Retrieved from http://wps.prehall.com

Bicycle vs Elliptical

The Bicycle vs The Elliptical

It is almost winter season, so I have to plan indoor cardio workouts for my clients. Almost every gym, at least have one bicycle machine, and one elliptical machine. My clients have different goals, but I have put them in the same fat loss program. Although both machines are great; I believe the elliptical is better for my clients goals.

For some people, sweating and feeling a racing heart is a good workout. The bicycle and the elliptical achieves this result. While the movements are different for both, the resistances are about the same. Both machines are almost found in every gym and their numbers are about equal. They are also a great time filler for those who are just doing maintenance rather than weight loss or fat loss.

The bicycle is one of the most hugged machines in the gym, second to the ab machine. Veteran gym rats call the bicycle, the lazy mans workout,. Although it makes a person sweat, it barely races the heart. If done properly, the bicycle can be as challenging as dumbbell pressing heavy weights. The bicycle targets mainly the lower body, stresses the knees and secondly the core. The fact that it actives the entire abdomen does not mean that it is a spot toning exercise; this supports the fact that bicycle users are mostly old people. A defined core is achieved through proper rest, diet, and exercise. The bicycle however, can help achieve this. Since it is cardiovascular, the machine can lead to the burning or visceral fat (belly fat).

The elliptical is a wonderful machine. It is a little more challenging than the bicycle, however, it is better for achieving weight loss and fat loss. It feels like running except the movement is more of a stride and has less impact on the knees.. Not only it helps burn fat, but it can tone the body at the same time. The reason for this is because of the resistance built in it. The handles give the user an option to do a full body workout. When the body uses both the arms and legs against a resistance, more energy is required. The elliptical does this so effectively that it quickly depletes the bodys stored glycogen and forces the body to use fat for energy. It is good for improving cardiovascular because it races the heart so greatly. Since the elliptical is quite challenging, the average use of it is no more than 30 minutes. This time window also negates the possbility of catabolism; it is a state where the body breaks down the muscles for energy.

The elliptical is better than the bicycle in my opinion. It offers more a full body workout than the bicycle. It has less impact on the knees; and for the reason that we need our legs to function throughout the day. The elliptical is more challenging than the bicycle because of the resistance and movement required to do so. Having said that, it is the reason why it is better for my clients goals. The elliptical is what I call, the mould for our ideal physique.

Ethnic Groups and Discrimination

Ethnic Groups and Discrimination

Asian Americans originally came to the United States as immigrants. Many of the asian citizens were seeking a better life for themselves and saw America as a land of opportunity. According to Richard T. Schaefer? Racial and Ethnic Groups? (2006),? more than over 200,000 Chinese immigrants came to the United States thinking they would find gold and job opportunities of the West; with warfare, drought, and overcrowding in China many people decided to take their chances in the United States. My parents are Hmong and came to America during the late 1970??™s trying to escape the oppression of communism in Southeast Asia, because of their alliance with the United States in the Vietnam War. Like many other Asian Americans my parents were seeking a new life, one with more opportunities.

Migrating to a new country, a new world and culture, many asian citizens faced hostility because their customs and beliefs were so different and non-European. Even before the Chinese had started immigrating into the United States there was already a huge stereotype of them and their customs; American traders, European diplomats, and Protestant missionaries often told others about the exotic and sinister aspects of China (Richard T. Schaefer,? 2006). Prejudice towards the Chinese did not just end there; the Chinese also faced segregation and racism. Organized labor feared that the Chinese would be used as strikebreakers but when Chinese workers finally unionized they were not recognized by major labor organizations (Richard T. Schaefer,? 2006). Major labor organizations instead opposed any effort to assist Chinese workers.

There are many forms of discrimination, some easier to identify than others. An institutional discrimination, one of the biggest discrimination towards the Chinese that even became a law was the Chinese Exclusion Act. In 1882 the Chinese Exclusion Act was enacted and immigration of Chinese was outlawed for a total of about 60 years, also denying Chinese the chance to become citizens. (Richard T. Schaefer,? 2006). Even though the Exclusion act eventually added to the list of peoples who are restricted to enter the United States, it was the Chinese who first felt this governmental discrimination.

Another form of discrimination that the Chinese were affected by was glass ceiling. We know that the Chinese was used as a main labor force to stop strikebreakers. When the Chinese had finally unionized they were not recognized by the major labor organizations and had been denied admittance into the American Federation of Labor (AFL). Because Chinese were not admitted into the AFL like everyone else, they were also excluded from benefits an AFL worker would have.

A form of discrimination that Chinese participate in though is affirmative action, mainly the Chinese of Affirmative Action (CAA). The CAA was founded in 1969 and initially they wanted the creation of job opportunities for Chinese Americans and equality for access to employment. Now they voice in behalf of the broader Asian and Pacific American community (CAASF,? 2008). They have good intentions here, but at the same time they are also imposing discrimination on others as well. Forcing a place of employment to diversify their employees may also mean that a more qualified person might not be hired, because there is a quota on which groups gets accepted or not.

I think that I can culturally identify with both the ethnic group and with the United States mainstream culture. Hmong people are actually similar to the Chinese in many ways so I can identify with some of the discrimination they felt. However, being born in the United States and having always been constantly around its culture, the American culture and life style is what I have always known. I had thought of myself as American and nothing more, it was not until I got older did I start to realize the differences in ethnic groups and its cultures. Also being the first generation to be born in America it is very easy for me to see the differences in culture with my own family and the mainstream culture. I find it funny because when I see my nephews and his friends playing around, they all seem like they have no differences and even share the same culture even though they are all not the same race or ethnic group. Only until a person grows older and realizes the physical and cultural differences do they start labeling one another.

Reference

CAASF.? (2008).? Four Decades of Civil Rights Leadership.? Retrieved? June? 7,? 2008, from? http://www.caasf.org/history.htm

Richard T. Schaefer.? (2006).? Racial and Ethnic Groups.? Retrieved? June? 7,? 2008,? from University of Phoenix, Week Three,? resource.? ETH125? Web site.

Bicycle to Japan

EXCUTIVE SUMMARY

In recent years, there has been an increasing pressure on many international companies to implement health and safety laws, union and pay system in Japan. As corporate globalization continues to afford companies headquartered in certain countries the ability to conduct business in other jurisdictions, the international company is beginning to recognize the importance of ensuring that corporations understand the laws and standards, which they must comply if they wish to open a manufacturing facility in other countries.
Japan and most Asian countries, in contrast to Western countries, are described as high-context culture where human relations are valued (Hall, 1976). This implies that human relations might be especially important in an Asian setting. As our company is planning to open a medium-size manufacturing bicycle in Nagoya which was well known for being conservative, but now being both an industrial powerhouse and a comparatively agreeable and open city, my research through the World Wide Web will focus on the occupational health and safety, union, and pay system in Japan that help manager and supervisor make consistent and reliable decisions. On the other hand, it helps give each employee a clear understanding as to what they expect and allow. It takes some effort to complete, but brings definite long??“term benefits, reduces disputes, and adds to the professionalism of our business.

?

INTRODUCTION

In between the Tokyo-Osaka rivalry is Nagoya, coined the biggest ???country town??? in Japan for its small town mentality, making it reputedly the hardest city in Japan to do business in because of its conservative mindset. With the population of over 2.2 million, Nagoya has the greatest concentration of manufacturing industries in Japan. However, the business style of person from Nagoya is slow and conservative as they are much more aggressive. You often hear people say that if you can do business in Nagoya, you can do business anywhere in Japan, and I believe this is very true.??? (http://accjjournal.com/magnetic-cities/5/). On the other hand, human-relation type of managements preferred by the Japanese is based on face-to-face physical contact within groups, and with individuals in other groups with whom they have established relations.
From above information about the people from Nagoya, in the process of opening a medium-sized bicycle firm which will have about fewer than 300 employees, the manager of company need to know more detail information about the occupational health and safety, unions and pay systems in Japanese bicycle manufactures which can adapt with Nagoya workers. It is an ideal time to construct a working culture based on the positive aspects of the traditional Japanese working style, such as cooperation among employees, health care staff, and employers. As in any culture, a new working culture that incorporated the old would be more readily accepted.

Occupational health and safety legislation

The history of Japans legislation for labor protection begins in the early twentieth century. The Mines Act of 1905 and the Factories Act of 1911 included some provisions for worker protection. Subsequent legislation in the 1920s and 1930s regulated such factors as minimum age of employment, conditions of factory dormitories, and so on. Major advances in workers social security came with the Employees Health Insurance Act of 1922, and subsequent health insurance legislation for specific groups of workers (Appendix A). Beginning in the late 1930s, however, as Japan went to war, government bureaucrats turned their attention away from social welfare and workers rights and toward “strike prevention, wage controls, labor allocation, and other measures related to military-industrial mobilization.”

Appendix A: Major Japanese Legislation Relevant to Occupational Safety and Health

Appendix from Michael R. Reich, PHD, and Howard Frimkin, MD, MPH; An Overview of Japanese Occupational Health

Japans contemporary labor laws began to emerge immediately after the Second World War. Two key pieces of legislation, both quite progressive in the historical context, were the Trade Union Law of 1945, which guaranteed the rights to organize, bargain collectively, and strike, and the Labor Standards Law of 1947, which set the basic principles of worker protection for both union and nonunion workers (see Appendix A). The other major advance was the new Japanese Constitution of 1947, which stated that workers had a “right to organize, to bargain, and to act collectively” (Ministry of Labor: Labor Union Basic Survey. Tokyo: Ministry of Labor, 1985) and that “[a]ll people shall have the right and obligation to work” (Supreme Court of Japan, General Affairs Bureau, Public Affairs Division,30 October 1987). Few Western countries provide such specific and strong guarantees of workers rights.

Union Activities

The most striking feature of Japanese industrial relations is the dominance of the enterprise (or company) unions, which account for more than 90 per cent of all unions and organized workers in Japan.3 Craft and industrial unions do not figure importantly among Japanese unions or workers. Federations of enterprise unions, however, do play important roles for particular industries, and these federations are joined in turn into four major confederations: Sohyo, Domei, Churitsuroren, and Shinsanbetsu. Sohyo (General Council of Trade Unions of Japan) generally supports the Japanese Socialist party, and Domei (Japanese Confederation of Labor)
is linked to the Democratic Socialist party. Churitsuroren (Federation of Independent Unions of Japan), and Shinsanbetsu (National Federation of Industrial Organizations) tend to remain neutral among political parties. Enterprise unions nonetheless maintain substantial autonomy from the federations in administrative matters and in bargaining.
It is important to note that Japanese unions are primarily postwar phenomena, and all in all have made significant achievements, including general improvements in wages, hours and fringe benefits, institutionalization of employment security measures, enlarged participation of workers in management decision making, formation of countervailing power against the conservative central government, and elevation of the status of workers in the social hierarchy (Shira T, Shimada H: Japan. In: Dunlop J, Galenson W (eds): Labor in the Twentieth Century. New York: Academic Press, 1978).
Payment Systems
A. Principles of wage payment:
Employers must pay wages in legal tender, directly to the employee, not less than once per month, and on a specified date. However, employers are allowed to remit wages into a bank account specified by the employee where the employee agrees to that method of payment, and may also deduct social insurance premiums, taxes and similar expense from wages.
B. Guarantee of minimum wage:
The minimum wage is determined according to region and industry. Where an employee is subject to two different minimums, the employee is entitled to the higher of the two minimum wages. The employer must pay the employee a wage that is not less than the minimum wage. For example, following the latest revision in October 2009, the current minimum wage for Nagoya is 710 yen per hour. This minimum wage rates is considered sufficient to provide a workers and family with a decent standard of living.
C. Wage system:
It is typical for Japanese companies to pay wages on a monthly basis, and to pay employees summer and winter bonuses. One characteristic of Japanese wages is the make-up: monthly wages usually include a basic wage and a range of allowances, which may include accommodation, family and transportation allowances. Another characteristic is that the amount paid in bonuses makes up a relatively high proportion of total wages paid to employees. An effect of the high proportion of wages made up of various allowances and bonuses consequently is to lower the rate of overtime pay paid for work outside normal working hours. The typical wage system in Japan has traditionally been based on seniority, whereby employees wages increase in accordance with the number of years of service at a company. However, recently, an increasing number of businesses are introducing ability-based and duty-based pay systems, and some are even implementing performance-based pay systems where wages are determined according to each employees rate of achievement of set targets. As a result, more and more businesses are adopting a yearly wage system.

CONCLUSION

One of the under-researched areas of international management is the way in which different cultures handle the occupational health and safety, unions and pay system, and what these implies for multinational management practices. Nevertheless, it is truth that an industry??™s success is determined much by the skills of its workforce. This requires focusing on ways human resource development activities can be used in ensuring the workforce is equipped to successfully meet the challenges. With a strong sense of hierarchy, the company may meet the difficulties in the problems of coordination and control at the bicycle manufacture, so negotiation is the important skill for manager. Depending on above information about the regulations as well as the features of health and safety system, labor union and pay system in Nagoya, the manager can apply traditional Japanese attitudes and patterns of behavior in organizing and managing people in the pursuit of common goal.
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REFERENCES

Michael R. Reich, PHD, and Howard Frimkin, MD, MPH; An Overview of Japanese Occupational Health

Shira T, Shimada H: Japan. In: Dunlop J, Galenson W (eds): Labor in the Twentieth Century. New York: Academic Press, 1978
Ministry of Labor: Labor Union Basic Survey. Tokyo: Ministry of Labor, 1985
Supreme Court of Japan, General Affairs Bureau, Public Affairs Division,30 October 1987
http://accjjournal.com/magnetic-cities/5/
http://countrystudies.us/japan/
http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m3495/is_n9_v39/ai_16309032/
http://joh.med.uoeh-u.ac.jp/pdf/E40/E40_2_12.pdf
http://occmed.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/reprint/50/6/437.pdf
http://www.city.nagoya.jp/global/en/profile/
http://www.jniosh.go.jp/icpro/jicosh-old/english/publication/news_letter/41.pdf
http://www.internationalbusinesslawadvisor.com/2010/03/articles/business-transactions/how-to-set-up-a-business-in-japan-and-other-business-wisdom/

http://www.ituc-csi.org/IMG/pdf/TRP_Japan_25-01-07_final.pdf

http://www.referenceforbusiness.com/encyclopedia/Int-Jun/Japanese-Management-Techniques.html

http://www.wcprr.org/pdf/04-01/2009.01.5359.pdf