Ethnomethodology

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1. ???®???®?? ?­? ???°? ???«???­???? ?? ?±?®?¶???®?«?®?????? ??“ ?????­?®?¬?????®?¤?®?«?®??????
2. ???®?­???????? ?«???®?±???°???­???¬? ???¬?® ?­?®?°?¬? ?«???­?®?© ?±?°???¤?»?»
3. ??? ?°???????­???? ??? ?§???±?­?®???® ???®?°???¤???  ?«???®?±???°???­???¬? ???¬?® ?­?®?°?¬? ?«???­?®?© ?±?°???¤?»?».
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4. ?“?±?«?®??????, ???»?§?»??? ???????? ?§? ?¬????? ?????«???±?????® ?? ?«???®?±???°???­???¬? ???¬?® ?­?®?°?¬? ?«???­?®?© ?±?°???¤???»
5. ?‚?®?±?±??? ?­?®???«???­???? ?«???®?±???°???­???¬? ???¬?® ?­?®?°?¬? ?«???­?®?© ?°??? ?«???­?®?±?????»
6. ???®?­???????? ?«?·???«?®??????, ?«???????­?­?»?© ?«?§?¤?°? ???®???® ?°? ?±?±???¤??? ?»
7. ?‘?????±?®?? ?«???????°? ?????°?»

???®???®?? ?­? ???°? ???«???­???? ?? ?±?®?¶???®?«?®?????? – ?????­?®?¬?????®?¤?®?«?®??????

???®???»?????? ??. ??? ?°?????­?????«??, ? ?¬???°????? ?­?±???®???® ?±?®?¶???®?«?®??? , ???°?®?????«???????????® ???­?????°???± ?? ?°? ?§?­?®???® ?°?®?¤?  accounts[1], ?±?®???¤???­?????? ?????®?°???? ?????­???¶???®?­? ?«???§?¬?  ?’. ??? ?°?±?®?­?±?  ?? ?????­?®?¬???­?®?«?®?????? ???®?«?®?¦???«?? ?­? ?·? ?«?® ?±?®?????°?????­?­?® ???­?®?© ?????°?±???? ?±?®?¶???®?«?®??????. ???®?¤???«?®?±?? ?­? ???°? ???«???­????, ?????­?®?¬?????®?¤?®?«?®??????, ???°?®???????®?±???®???????? ???°? ?¤???¶???®?­?­?®?© ?±?®?¶???®?«?®?????? ?? ???®?­?±???°???????????­?®?¬?? ? ?­? ?«???§??, ?????«?????????? ?±?®???®?© ?°? ?¤????? ?«???­???? ? ?«???????°?­? ???????? ???¦?? ?±???????±?????????????¬ ?§?­? ?­?????¬.
??? ?§?­?»?? ???°???????» ?«???¤???© ?±?®?§?¤? ???? ?? ???®?¤?¤???°?¦????? ???? ?¤?°???? ?? ?¤?°?????  ?­?????®???®?«???????¬???? ???????°???­?­?®?±???? ?? ???®?¬, ?·???® ?±?®?¶??? ?«???­?»?© ?¬???° ?¤???©?±???????????«???­?® ?°??? ?«???­ ?? ??? ???®??, ??? ?????¬ ?®?­ ???¬ ???°???¤?±??? ???«???????±??. ?€ ?­?  ???®???°?®?±?» ?® ???®?¬, ??? ?????¬ ?®???°? ?§?®?¬ ???±?? ?????® ???°?®???±?µ?®?¤????, ??? ?? ?«???¤?? ???®?­?±???°?????°?????? ?±?®?¶??? ?«???­?»?© ???®?°???¤?®??, ??? ?????? ?¬?????®?¤?» (?????­?®?¬?????®?¤?») ???±???®?«???§?????? ?¤?«?? ?±?®?§?¤? ?­????, ???®?¤?¤???°?¦? ?­???? ???«?? ???§?¬???­???­???? ?°? ?§?«???·?­?»?µ ?±?¬?»?±?«?®???»?µ ???®?­???????±???®?? ???®???±???¤?­?????­?®?© ?®???»?¤???­?­?®?© ?°??? ?«???­?®?±????, ???°???§??? ?­?  ?®?????????????? ???­?????°???±??????? ?? ?­? ?± ?­? ????? . ?‘?¬?»?±?« ?±?®?¶??? ?«???­?®?© ?°??? ?«???­?®?±????, ?®???»?¤???­?­?»?µ ?±?°???¤ ?±?®?§?¤? ?????±??, ???®?¤?¤???°?¦????? ?????±?? ???«?? ???§?¬???­???????±?? ?«???¤???¬?? ?? ?§?­? ?·???????«???­?®?© ?¬???°?? ?­???®?±?®?§?­? ?­?­?®. ???® ?·???® ?®?·???­?? ??? ?¦?­?®, ???µ ?¤???©?±?????????¬?? ???®?¤?¤???°?¦????? ?????±?? ?°? ?§???¬?­? ??, ?°? ?¶???®?­? ?«???­?®-?®?????±?»??? ???¬? ??, ???°? ???????·???±??? ??, ?®???????? ?¦??, ?®?±?¬?»?±?«???­?­? ?? ?????®?°???¤?®?·???­?­?®?±????, ??.??. ???®?±???°???­???¬? ???¬? ?? ?°??? ?«???­?®?±???? ???®???±???¤?­?????­?»?µ ?±?°???¤, ?? ???®???®?°?®?© ?????? ?¤???©?±???????? ?? ?®?±???????±?????«???????±??. ?‚ ?¤? ?­?­?®?¬ ?±?«???·? ??, ?¬?» ?±??? ?«??????? ???¬?±?? ?±?® ?±???®?©?±?????®?¬ ?°?????«?????±?????­?®?±????, ??? ?? ???«???·?????»?¬ ?±???®?©?±?????®?¬ ???®???±???¤?­?????­?®?±????. ???°? ???????·???±?????? ?¤???©?±???????? ???°?®?¤???¶???°?????? ?±?¬?»?±?«, ?±?®?§?¤? ???? ???®???±???¤?­?????­?»?© ?????????????© ???®?­???????±??, ?? ???®???®?°?»?© ?±? ?¬?? ?¦?? ???®?±?«?? ?????®???® ?? ???®?¬????? ?????±??.
?’? ?????¬ ?®???°? ?§?®?¬, ?¬?» ?±? ?¬?? ??? ??-???® ?¤?®?±??????? ???¬ ?????¤???¬?®?±???? ?±?®?¶??? ?«???­?®???® ???®?°???¤??? , ?µ?®???? ??? ?¦?????±??, ?·???® ?????® ???°?®???±?µ?®?¤???? ?±? ?¬?® ?±?®???®?©. ?????­?»?? ?? ?­???????­?»?? ?¬?????®?¤?», ???±???®?«???§?????¬?»?? ?«???¤???¬?? ?¤?«?? ?±?®?§?¤? ?­???? ?????®?© ?®?·???­?? ??? ?¦?­?®?© ?????¤???¬?®?±????, ??? ?? ?°? ?§ ?? ?±???°?????«?????? ?®???????±?????®, ?  ?­?? ?«?®???¬???­?»?», ?­?? ?®???????? ?­?®?°?¬?», ?¶???­?­?®?±????, ???­?????°???±?», ?­?? ?«?°?®?«?????»?? ???°? ?­?±? ???¶?????» ???«?? ?¤?°???????? ?±?®???«? ?????­????. ?????? ?¬?????®?¤?» ???®?¤?¤???°?¦????? ???? ?®???????? ???®?­???¬? ?­???? (common understandings), ???®???®?°?»?? ?­?? ???®?¤?«???¦? ?? ???°?®???®??? ?°????? ?­???? ?? ???±?????¤?  ???°???±?????±?????????? ??? ?? ???®?­ ?¤?«?? ?«?????®???® ???§? ???¬?®?¤???©?±????????.

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?‚???¤???¬?®?±???? ?±?®?¶??? ?«???­?®???® ???®?°???¤???  ??“ ?«???®?±???°???­???¬? ???¬?® ?­?®?°?¬? ?«???­? ?? ?±?°???¤? ?» – ???¬?????? ???®?±???°???­???¬? ???¬?»?? ???®?°?¬? ?«???­?»?? ?·???°???», ?®???«? ?¤? ???? ?????????·?­?®?±?????? ?±?®???»?????©, ???®???®?°?»?? ???¬?????? ??? ?­?±?» ???°?®???§?®?©???? ???«?? ?­?? ???°?®???§?®?©????, ?????°?®?????­?®?±????, ?±?®???®?±??? ?????¬?®?±???? ?± ???°?®???«?»?¬ ?? ?????¤???????¬, ???°???·???­?­?®?±???? (casual approach) ?? ?­???®???µ?®?¤???¬?®?±???? ?¤?«?? ?±?????¤???????«?? (???®?±???°???­???¬? ?????????® ?«???¶? ).
?—???«?®?????? ?·? ?±???® ?­? ?µ?®?¤?????±?? ???® ???§? ???¬?®?¤???©?±???????? ?± ?®???°???¦? ???????¬??, ?­?® ?®?±?­?®???®?© ?????®???® ???§? ???¬?®?¤???©?±???????? ?????«???????±?? ???±???®?«?­???­???? ?«???®?­?®???»?µ ?®?¦???¤? ?­???©?» ?? ?±?®???«???¤???­???? ?§? ???«???·???­?­?»?µ ?? ?­???µ ???°?????®??? ?­???©, ???®???®?°?? ???­? ?·??, ???®?¤?¤???°?¦? ?­???? ???§? ???¬?­?®???® ?¤?®?????°????. ?’???°?¬???­ ?«?¤?®?????°?????»[2] ?§?¤???±?? ???®?¤?°? ?§???¬????? ?????±?? ??? ?? ?±?®???«? ?±???? ?­?  ?®???°???¤???«???­?­?»?© (???®?­?±???????????????­?»?©) ???®?°???¤?®?? ?±?®???»?????© ???«?? ??? ?? ?­? ?§?»??? ???¬?»?? ??? ?§???±?­?»?? ???°? ?????«? . ???®???¤?  ?±?®???«? ?±???? ?¤? ?­?®, ?¬?» ?¬?®?¦???¬ ???®???®?°?????? ?® ???®?­?±???????????????­?»?µ ?®?¦???¤? ?­?????µ, ???®???®?°?»?? ???°???±?®???¤???­???????±?? ?? ?­? ???®?°?? ??? ?§???±?­?»?µ ???°? ?????«.
?’? ??, ?­? ???°???¬???°, ?®???»?·?­? ??, ???®???±???¤?­?????­? ?? ?±??????? ?¶????, ???°? ?· ???°???­???¬? ???? ?? ?±?????? ??? ?¶?????­??? . ???®???°?®???????¬ ???°?®? ?­? ?«???§???°?®??? ???? ?????? ?±??????? ?¶???? ?± ???®?·???? ?§?°???­???? ?????­?®?¬?????®?¤?®?«?®??????. ?????°???¤???«???­?­?®, ??? ?¶?????­?? ?? ???°? ?· ?®?±???????±?????«?????? ??? ??????-???® ?¤???©?±????????, ???®???®?°?»?? ?­?? ???°?????????? ?¤?«?? ?­???µ ???°? ???????·???±???®???® ?®???????±?­???­????, ?­?® ?¬?» ?¤?®?«?¦?­?» ?±?¤???«? ???? ???µ ?®?????±?????¬?»?¬?? (accountable) ?? ??? ?·???±?????? ?®?°??? ?­???§? ?¶???? ?®???»?·?­?»?µ, ???®???±???¤?­?????­?»?µ ?¤???©?±???????© ?? ?±?????°?? ???°?????¬?  ???°? ?·?®?¬ ??? ?¶?????­??? . ?„?«?? ?????®???® ???®?±?¬?®???°???¬ ?­?  ???®?¤?®???­???? ?±??????? ?¶???? ??? ??, ?????¤???® ?®?­?  ?­? ?¬ ?­???§?­? ???®?¬? , ?·???¦?¤?  ?? ?­?????§?????±???­? , ???®???»??? ???¬?±?? ???±???®?«???§?®??? ???? ???°???­?¶???? ?????­?®?¬?????®?¤?®?«?®?????·???±???®?© ???­?¤?????????°???­???­?®?±????.
?€??? ??, ???°? ?· ?? ??? ?¶?????­?? ?±???®???¬?? ?¤???©?±?????????¬?? ?±?®?§?¤? ???? ???®?­???????±?? ?«???°?????¬? ?», ?????¤???¬?®?±???? ?±?®?¶??? ?«???­?®???® ???®?°???¤???  ???«?? ?«???®?±???°???­???¬? ???¬?® ?­?®?°?¬? ?«???­???? ?±?°???¤???», ?? ???®???®?°?®?© ???¬ ?­?? ???°???????????±?? ???°? ???????·???±???®?? ?®???????±?­???­???? ???µ ?¤???©?±???????©, ?®?­?? ???®?­?????­?», ?®?±?®?§?­? ?­?» ?? ?????®?°???¤?®?·???­?». ?€?±???®?«???§???? ???§?»??, ???°? ?· ?? ??? ?¶?????­?? ???°?®???§???®?¤???? ???»?°? ?¦???­????, ???®???®?°?»?? ???¬?????? ?±?¬?»?±?« ???®?«?????® ?? ???±?«?®???????µ, ???¤?? ?®?­?? ???»?«?? ?±?®?§?¤? ?­?», ??.??. ?? ???±?«?®???????µ ???°?????¬?  ???°? ?·?®?¬ ??? ?¶?????­??? . ?’? ???¦??, ?????? ?«???¤?? ?±?®?§?¤? ???? ???®?­?±???????????????­?»?© ???®?°???¤?®?? ?±?®???»?????© ???«?? ??? ?§???±?­?»?? ???°? ?????«?  ?± ?­? ???®?°?®?¬ ???®?­?±???????????????­?»?µ ?®?¦???¤? ?­???© ?«???°?????¬? ?», ???®???®?°?»?? ?? ???°???­???¬? ???? ?­?  ?????°?? ?? ??? ?·???±?????? ?®???°???¤???«???­???? ??? ?¦?¤?»?© ?±???®???© ?±??????? ?¶???? ?? ?? ??? ?·???±?????? ?®???°???¤???«???­???? ?±???®???µ ???§? ???¬?®?®???­?®?????­???© ?± ?¤?°???????¬. ?€?±?µ?®?¤?? ???§ ? ?«???????°?­? ???????­?»?µ ???®?§?¬?®?¦?­?®?±?????©, ??? ?¶?????­?? ?®?¦???¤? ???? ?®?? ???°? ?·?  ?°???¤ ???®???°?®?±?®??, ?®?±?¬?®???°, ???»?????±?»??? ?­???? ?°???¶???????  ?? ??.?¤. ???­ ?®?¦???¤? ????, ???±?«?? ???°?®?¶???¤???°?  ?®???°?®?±?  ?® ?±?®?±???®???­???? ?§?¤?®?°?®??????, ?®?±?¬?®???°, ???»?????±?»??? ?­???? ?°???¶???????  ?®???«? ?¤? ???? ?±???«?®?© ?¤?«?? ?­?????® (??? ?¶?????­??? ), ???® ?®?­?? ?????¤???? ?®???«? ?¤? ???? ?±???«?®?© ?? ?¤?«?? ???°? ?·?  ???®?¦??. ?’? ???¦??, ?®?­ ?®?¦???¤? ????, ?·???®, ??? ?? ?®?­ ?®?¦???¤? ????, ?·???® ???°?®?¶???¤???°?  ?®???°?®?±?  ?® ?±?®?±???®???­???? ?§?¤?®?°?®??????, ?®?±?¬?®???°, ???»?????±?»??? ?­???? ?°???¶???????  ?????¤???? ?®?±??? ??? ?????±?? ?? ?±???«?? ?¤?«?? ???°? ?·? , ??? ?? ?? ???°? ?· ?????¤???? ?®?¦???¤? ????, ?·???® ?®???°?®?± ?® ?±?®?±???®???­???? ?§?¤?®?°?®??????, ?®?±?¬?®???°, ???»?????±?»??? ?­???? ?°???¶???????  ?????¤???? ?®?±??? ??? ?????±?? ?? ?±???«?? ?¤?«?? ?­?????®.[3] ?‚? ?¦?­?® ?®???¬?????????? ?·???®, ???®???¤?  ???°? ?????®?????? ?¬???¦?«???·?­?®?±???­?»?µ ?±?°???¤ (?? ?­? ?????¬ ?±?«???·? ??, ???°? ?·?  ?? ??? ?¶?????­??? ) ?????°? ???«???????±?? ???®?­?±???????????????­?»?¬?? ?®?¦???¤? ?­?????¬??, ?«???¤?? ?¤?®?????°?????? ?¤?°???? ?¤?°??????. ?’? ??, ???°? ?· ?? ??? ?¶?????­?? ?±??? ?°? ?????±?? ?¤???©?±?????®??? ???? ??? ?????¬ ?®???°? ?§?®?¬, ?·???®???» ???°?®???§?????±???? ?±???®???¬?? ?¤???©?±?????????¬?? ???«?? ???®?·???????? ??? ?????? ? ??????? ?«???­?»?? ?±?®???»?????? (???°?®?¶???¤???°?  ?®???°?®?±? /?®?????????®?? ?® ?±?®?±???®???­???? ?§?¤?®?°?®??????, ?®?±?¬?®???°/???»???®?«?­???­???? ???°?®?±?????» ?®?????°?»???? ?°?®??, ???»?????±?»??? ?­???? ?°???¶??????? /?§? ?????°???­???? ?????® ?????·? ?????? ?? ?°???????±???°? ?????°??), ???®???®?°?»?? ?±?®???«? ?±???????±?? ?± ?­?®?°?¬? ???????­?»?¬ ???®?°???¤???®?¬ ???°?????¬?  ???°? ?·?®?¬ ??? ?¶?????­??? .
?‘?®???»??????, ???®???®?°?»?? ???°???¤???±?¬? ???°????? ?????±?? ??? ?§???±?­?»?¬?? ???°? ?????«? ?¬?? (?®???????????????­?»?¬?? ???°? ?????«? ?¬??) ?? ?«???®?±???°???­???¬? ???¬?® ?­?®?°?¬? ?«???­?®?© ?±?°???¤???», ?????«???????±?? ???°???¤?­? ?¬???°???­?­?»?¬?? ?±?®???»???????¬??, ?®?­?? ?®???«? ?¤? ???? ?±???®?©?±?????®?¬ ???­??? ?°??? ?­???­?®?±????, ??.??. ?±?«???¦? ?? ?±??? ?­?¤? ?°??? ?¬??, ?®???°???¤???«???­?????¬?? ???°? ?????«???­?®???® ?µ?®?¤?  ?±?®???»?????© ?? ???§?¬???­?????????µ?±?? ? ??????? ?«???­?»?µ ?±?®?±???®???­?????µ. ?‚ ?????®?¬ ?±?«???·? ???¬ ?¬?» ?¬?®?¦???¬ ?????®?¬???­?????? ?® ?­? ???®?°?? ???°???±???????®?§???¶???© (???®?±?»?«?®??), ???§ ???®???®?°?»?µ ???±?µ?®?¤???? ??. ???????¶, ?® ?«?±?µ???¬?? ???­?????°???°????? ?¶???? ?? ?±? ?¬?®???»?°? ?¦???­?????», ???®???¤?  ???®?????¤???­???? ?¤?°?????®???® ?«???¶?  ???¤???­?????????¶???°???????±?? ??? ?? ?¤? ?­?­?®??. ?’? ??, ???®?????¤???­???? ???°? ?·? , ???®???®?°?®?? ???°???¤???±?¬? ???°????? ?????±?? ??? ?§???±?­?»?¬?? ???°? ?????«? ?¬??, ???¤???­?????????¶???°???????±?? ??? ?¶?????­???®?¬ ??? ?? ?¤? ?­?­?®??. ???°?®?¶???¤???°?  ?®?±?¬?®???°? , ?®???°?®?± ?® ?±?®?±???®???­???? ?§?¤?®?°?®??????, ?¦???«? ?­???? ??? ?¶?????­???  ?®???????·? ????, ???»?????±?»??? ?­???? ?°???¶??????? , ?¤? ?«???­???©?????? ???®?¦???«? ?­????, ?°?????®?¬???­?¤? ?¶???? ???°? ?·? , ?¦???«? ?­???? ??? ?¶?????­???  ?±?«????? ???? ??“ ???±?? ?????® ???°???¤?­? ?¬???°???­?­?»?? ?±?®???»??????. ???­?? ?±?«???¦? ?? ?®?±?­?®???®?© ?¤?«?? ?®???®?§?­? ??? ?­???? ?±???°? ?­?­?®???® ?¤???©?±????????, ?????«???­???? ???«?? ?±?®???»?????? ?? ?????®?© ?«???®?±???°???­???¬? ???¬?® ?­?®?°?¬? ?«???­?®?© ?±?°???¤???» ???°?????¬?  ???°? ?·?®?¬ ??? ?¶?????­??? . ?€ ???®?????¤???­???? ???°? ?·?  ???«?? ??? ?¶?????­???  ??“ ?????® ?¤???©?±???????? ?? ??? ???????®?°?????µ ???°???­?????®???® ???¬?? ?­?®?°?¬? ???????­?®???® ???®?°???¤??? . ??? ?§???±?­?»?? ???°? ?????«?  ???°???¤? ???? ???µ ???®?????¤???­???? ?±?¬?»?±?« ?¤???©?±????????.

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?—???«?®?????? ???®?«? ??? ????, ?·???® ???®, ?·???® ?®?­ ?§?­? ???? ??? ?????¬, ??? ?????¬ ?®?­ ?????® ?§?­? ????, ?????°?±?®?­???????¶???°?????? ?????® ??? ?? ?±?®?¶??? ?«???­?»?© ?®?????????? ??“ ?¤?«?? ?­?????® ?±? ?¬?®???® ?? ?¤?«?? ?¤?°???????µ ??“ ?? ??? ?·???±?????? ?­? ?±???®?????????®, ?¤?®???°?®?±?®?????±???­?®???®, ?¤?®???°?®???®?°???¤?®?·?­?®???® ?·?«???­?  ???°???????» (bona fide). ???® ?·???® ???±?«??, ?·???«?®?????? ?­? ?°????? ???? ???±??? ?­?®?????? ???®???±???¤?­?????­?®?© ?¦???§?­?? ?? ?????® ???«? ?±?±???????¶???°?????? ??? ?? ???®???®, ???®?¬?? ?­???¤?®?±??? ???? ?«?§?¤?°? ???®???® ?°? ?±?±???¤??? ?», ?±?¬?»?±?«? . ???°???¤???®?«?®?¦???¬, ??? ?¶?????­?? ??? ?? ???«? ?±?±???????¶???°?®??? ?« ???°? ?·? , ???°? ?· ?­?? ???»?§??? ?« ?? ?­?????® ?¤?®?????°????, ?­?® ?? ?±? ?¬ ?????® ?­?? ???»?°? ?§???«. ?«?‚?®?±???°???­???¬? ???¬?® ?­?®?°?¬? ?«???­? ?? ?±?°???¤? ?» ???°?????¬?  ???°? ?·?®?¬ ??? ?¶?????­??? , ?? ?????®?¬ ?±?«???·? ??, ?­?? ?????¤???? ?±???????±?????®??? ????, ??? ?? ??? ?? ?­???? ?¤?®?????°????, ?? ???®??, ?·???? ???®?¬?????????­???­?®?±???? ?­?? ?®?­ ?±? ?¬, ?­?? ?¤?°???????? ?­?? ?¬?®?????? ?±?·????? ???? ?±? ?¬?® ?±?®???®?© ?°? ?§???¬???????????±??, ?????«???????±?? ?«?·???¦? ???®?¬?» (???® ??. ?™???¶??). ?‚?°? ?· ???§ ?±??? ?????±?  ???®?¬?????????­???­?®???®, ?¤?®???°?®?±?®?????±???­?®???®, ?¤?®???°?®???®?°???¤?®?·?­?®???® ?·?«???­?  ?®???????±?????  ?????°???????« ???«?? ???»?« ?????°???????¤???­ ??? ?¶?????­???®?¬ (?±?????¤???????«???¬) ?±??? ?????± ?·???«?®??????? , ?«???????­?­?®???® ?«?§?¤?°? ???®???® ?°? ?±?±???¤??? ?»[5], ?«???®?±???°???­???¬? ???¬?® ?­?®?°?¬? ?«???­? ?? ?°??? ?«???­?®?±?????», ?±?®?§?¤? ?­?­? ?? ???????¬?? ?«???¤???¬?? ?????°???±??? ?«?  ?±???????±?????®??? ????.

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?«?‚?®?±???°???­???¬? ???¬?® ?­?®?°?¬? ?«???­?»?? ?±?°???¤?»?» ?®???»?¤???­?­?» ?? ?®???????????????­?», ??? ?????¬?? ???µ ?¤???«? ???? ?±? ?¬?? ?«???¤??, ?«?§?­? ???? ?±?®?®????? ?», ?¤???????°?¬???­? ?­???» ?®?¤?­?®???® ?·???«?®???????  ??? ?????? ?¦??, ??? ?? ?? ?¤???????°?¬???­? ?­???» ?¤?°?????®???®, ?? ?? ?????®?¬ ?±?«???·? ?? ? ??????? ?«???­?®?? ?? ???®?????­?¶??? ?«???­?®?? ?®???®?§?­? ?·? ???? ?®?¤?­?® ?? ???® ?¦??. ?€ ??? ?¦?¤?®?© ?«???®?±???°???­???¬? ???¬?® ?­?®?°?¬? ?«???­?®?© ?±?°???¤???» ?±?®?®?????????±?????????? ?±???®?? ?¤???????°?¬???­? ?­???», ?????°???????? ?­? ?·? ?«?® ?? ?·? ?±???­?»?µ ?????®???°? ???????µ ?«???¤???©.
???» ???°?????®?¤???«?? ???°???¬???° ?± ???°?????¬?®?¬ ?? ???°? ?·? , ?? ???®?¤?®???­?»?µ ???°???¬???°?®?? ?¬? ?±?±? . ???® ?·???«?®??????, ??? ?? ???°? ?????«?®, ?­???©???°? ?«???­ ?? ???°???¬???­???­???? ???°? ?????«?  ?±?®?¬?­???­???? ?®???­?®?±???????«???­?® ?±?????? ???°???¤?¬?????®??, ?«?????»?µ ?®???????????®?? ?¬???°? , ?®?­ ???®?§?¤???°?¦????? ?????±?? ?®?? ?±???¦?¤???­???© ?® ???®?¬, ??? ?????¬?? ?®?­?? ??? ?¦?????±?? ?­?  ?±? ?¬?®?¬ ?¤???«??, ?±?«?®???­?® ?±?«???¤?????? ?±???®???®???°? ?§?­?®?¬?? ?¬?????®?¤?? ?????®?µ??.

?‘?????±?®?? ?«???????°? ?????°?»:

1. ??? ?°?????­?????«?? ??. ???®?­???????? ?«?¤?®?????°?????»: ?¤?®?????°???? ??? ?? ???±?«?®?????? ?±??? ?????«???­?»?µ ?±?®???«? ?±?®??? ?­?­?»?µ ?¤???©?±???????© ?? ?????® ?????±?????°???¬???­??? ?«???­?®?? ???§???·???­???? ?•?°???±???®?¬? ?????? ???® ???±???®?°???? ?±?®?¶???®?«?®??????. ?—. 3, ?±???°. 139-204.
2. ??? ?°?????­?????«?? ??., ?‘? ???± ?•. ?? ?±???°?????????°? ?µ ???®?°?¬? ?«???­?»?µ ???°? ???????·???±?????µ ?¤???©?±???????© ?•?°?????±?®?¬? ?????? ???® ???±???®?°???? ?±?®?¶???®?«?®??????. ?—. 3, ?±???°. 205-238.
3. ??? ?°?????­?????«?? ??. ???®?­?¶?????¶???? ?? ?????±?????°???¬???­??? ?«???­?»?? ???±?±?«???¤?®??? ?­???? ?«?¤?®?????°?????» ??? ?? ???±?«?®?????? ?±??? ?????«???­?»?µ ?±?®???«? ?±?®??? ?­?­?»?µ ?¤???©?±???????© ?†???°?­? ?« ?«?‘?®?¶???®?«?®?????·???±???®?? ?®???®?§?°???­?????». ?’?®?¬ 8. ?? 1. 2009, ?±???°. 10-50.
4. ?€?­?????°?­????-?????°?±???? ?¦???°?­? ?«?  ?«?‘?®?¶???®?«?®?????·???±???®?? ?®???®?§?°???­?????» www.sociologica.net
5. ?”???¤???°? ?«???­?»?© ?®???°? ?§?®??? ?????«???­?»?© ???®?°??? ?« ??“ ?????®?­?®?¬????? , ?‘?®?¶???®?«?®??????, ?????­???¤?¦?¬???­??. http://www.ecsocman.edu.ru
———————–
[1] Accounts ??“ ?®?????±? ?­????, ?????«???????????±?? ?®?¤?­?®???°???¬???­?­?® ?? ?®???????±?­???­?????¬??.
?’???°?¬???­ account, ?????°?????®?¤???¬?»?© ??? ?? ?«?®?????±? ?­?????», ???¬?????? ???®?«???? ???¬?????© ?±?¬?»?±?«. ?????® ?????? ?? ?«?®???·?????», ?? ?«?®???????±?­???­?????».
?????·?? ???¤???? ?® ??? ???®?¬ ?®?????±? ?­???? ?·?????®-???®, ???®???®?°?®?? ?±? ?¬?® ???® ?±?????? ?®???????±?­?????? ?????® ?·???®-???® ?·???°???§ ?­? ?¤???«???­???? ?????® ?±?¬?»?±?«?®?¬.
??? ?°?????­?????«?? ??., ?‘? ???± ?•. ?? ???®?°?¬? ?«???­?»?µ ?±???°?????????°? ?µ ???°? ???????·???±?????µ ?¤???©?±???????© // ?•?°???±???®?¬? ?????? ???® ???±???®?°???? ?±?®?¶???®?«?®??????. ?—. 3., ?±???°. 206.
[2] ??? ?°?????­?????«?? ??. ???®?­???????? ?«?¤?®?????°?????»: ?¤?®?????°???? ??? ?? ???±?«?®?????? ?±??? ?????«???­?»?µ ?±?®???«? ?±?®??? ?­?­?»?µ ?¤???©?±???????© ?? ?????® ?????±?????°???¬???­??? ?«???­?®?? ???§???·???­???? ?•?°???±???®?¬? ?????? ???® ???±???®?°???? ?±?®?¶???®?«?®??????. ?—. 3, ?±???°. 142.
[3] ??? ?°?????­?????«?? ??. ???®?­???????? ?«?¤?®?????°?????»: ?¤?®?????°???? ??? ?? ???±?«?®?????? ?±??? ?????«???­?»?µ ?±?®???«? ?±?®??? ?­?­?»?µ ?¤???©?±???????© ?? ?????® ?????±?????°???¬???­??? ?«???­?®?? ???§???·???­???? ?•?°???±???®?¬? ?????? ???® ???±???®?°???? ?±?®?¶???®?«?®??????. ?—. 3, ?±???°. 142.
[4] ??? ?°?????­?????«?? ??. ???®?­???????? ?«?¤?®?????°?????»: ?¤?®?????°???? ??? ?? ???±?«?®?????? ?±??? ?????«???­?»?µ ?±?®???«? ?±?®??? ?­?­?»?µ ?¤???©?±???????© ?? ?????® ?????±?????°???¬???­??? ?«???­?®?? ???§???·???­???? ?•?°???±???®?¬? ?????? ???® ???±???®?°???? ?±?®?¶???®?«?®??????. ?—. 3, ?±???°. 182, 186.
[5] ?†???°?­? ?« ?‘?®?¶???®?«?®?????·???±???®?? ?®???®?§?°???­???? ?’?®?¬ 8. ?? 1. 2009, ?±???°. 50. ???®?±???¤? ?°?±???????­?­?»?© ???­???????°?±???????? ??“
?‚?»?±??? ?? ?????®?«?  ?????®?­?®?¬??????. ?–???­???° ?????­?¤? ?¬???­??? ?«???­?®?© ?±?®?¶???®?«?®??????.

Big Drive Auto Memo

To: Big Drive Auto Executives

From: Team B

Subject: The Future of Big Drive Auto

Preparation for different economic realities has a large impact on short and long term survival or potential growth within a business. Although the current economic situation appears to be extremely challenging, the following recommendations for Big Drive Auto will prove to be a valuable asset in keeping the company doing what it does best- profiting in the automobile industry.
Big Drive is in a market situation in which a small number of selling firms control the market supply of a good or service and are therefore able to control the market price. In other words, Big Drive can be classified as an oligopoly. Every company in an oligopoly is aware of its own market share of the total market for the product or services it produces. Changes in price or market share by one company can be and in most cases, is reflected in the sales of its competition. There is a tendency that these companies have a high degree of interdependence. (Oligopoly, n.d.) Another impact on companies classified as an oligopoly is non price competition, such as advertising, packaging, and service offerings. (Oligopoly ,n.d.)
After understanding the market base and some ways to differentiate the company, one must analyze Big Drive Auto??™s historical data and predict trends. Based on trends derived from the past ten years of Big Drive Auto??™s performance as an automotive dealer, the data appears to suggest pinpointing the company??™s efforts toward service rather than sales. For example, a table posted below shows that Big Drive Auto recorded significant revenue growth in the area of service activities ranging from 1998-2007 (Big Drive, 2010).

Service Revenue, shown above, is on the rise.

Vehicle sales is fluctuating.

Oil, coolant and tires fluctuated as well.

The above chart paints a clearer picture of the overall trend of rising service revenue and fluctuating revenue from its other operating areas.
Since a well informed decision has been made to shift towards servicing, economic scenarios in the next five years has to be contemplated. Industry conditions should be analyzed and business plans drawn up to lead the company to success in various economic scenarios following data of the past and continuing into the expected future.
For current economic trends in the industry, one must look to the automobile data available. The recent data has varied. In January, for example, orders for motor vehicles fell by 2.2% (Nutting, 2010). That followed a gain of 3.6% in December and 0.2% in November (Nutting, 2009). Economic indicators such as these, during the current recession, reflect how orders and sales fluctuate and how companies and industries must adapt accordingly.
As mentioned earlier, in an oligopoly, non price competition is an important ingredient to success. Creative marketing in conjunction with environmental conscious business decisions allows Big Drive Auto to saturate into indirect markets; Thus enabling eco-conscious consumers to stay environmentally conscious throughout their purchasing decisions from food, homes, and automobiles. Big Drive Auto should actively target eco-friendly consumers with the suggested rebates, dealer incentives, and innovative financing to ensure customer satisfaction; resulting in improved sales and profits during any economic scenario.
Multiple economic scenarios may exist in the near future. Getting caught unprepared is not an option in this ever-changing auto industry. Three economic scenarios will be discussed with applicable recommendations to structure business plans accordingly.
In a prosperous economic climate, where sales and service revenues are steadily trending higher, Big Drive Auto??™s general pricing strategy will shift slightly higher to accommodate more risk-taking. Reinvestment within the company will take place in this instance such as growing human capital with education and training as well as expansion of jobs and locations.
In a recessionary type atmosphere, Big Drive Auto??™s pricing strategy for vehicles will continue to be generally lower than its??™ competitor??™s prices, but checks will be set in place to ensure that prices will be raised to accommodate more consumers willing to pay a higher price for services offered. Historically, when an economy battles through a recession, the number vehicle purchases tend to slump while the numbers of individuals who maintain their vehicles tend to climb, which fits well into our business model.
The perilous scenario consists of an industry that has reached a contraction phase and places the business and industry in economic danger and imposes a strict demand for the company to either close its doors or completely slash its prices. Given that situation, Big Drive Auto intends to stay competitive and slash its prices to allow for its very survival. Additionally, Big Drive Auto wants to reach out to the community to help build trust with its patrons by offering outreach programs to assist customers, who face more challenging financial issues, such as layoffs or temporary work reduction.
In addition, how Big Drive Auto reacts to unpredictable credit market fluctuations will also determine how successful it will perform in the next five years. In case of financial distress, Big Drive must assure customers that its loans will have maximum insurance protections, in case the auto dealership climate has been battered by an economic storm.
Considering changing economic futures, Big Drive Auto will adjust its pricing strategies, market positioning, and improvement initiatives to benefit its clients (Auto Consulting, 2010). In spite of economic downturns and upswings, consumers should be able to retain their purchasing power. Understanding the economic swings, and the wants and needs of its customers will allow Big Drive Auto to remain a competitive force within the automobile industry for the months, years and decades to come.

References
Auto Consulting, (2010). Retrieved from http://www.autoconsulting.com/autotrade.htm on March 30, 2010

Nutting, R. (February 25, 2010). Durable goods orders surge 3% on airplanes. Market Watch. Retrieved from http://www.marketwatch.com.

Nutting, R. (January 28, 2010). Durable goods orders rise 0.3% in December. Marker Watch.
Retrieved from http://www.marketwatch.com.

Nutting, R. (December 24, 2009). Capital equipment orders strengthen in November. Market
Watch. Retrieved from http://www.marketwatch.com.

(n.d.). Oligopoly. Retrieved March 13, 2010 from http://www.answers.com/topic/oligopoly

Ethnography in Esl

Ethnography in ESL Review

Ethnography has recently become very popular in English as a Second Language (ESL). The basic idea behind ethnography is that experimental research cannot give us the same perspective as observations of true learning environments, such as classrooms, social environments, homes, etc. Ethnography looks at the moment to moment interactions within these environments. This enables the ethnographer to get a sense for the socioculture of the learning environment.
Watson-Gegeo defines ethnography as ???the study of people??™s behavior in naturally occurring, ongoing settings, with a focus on the cultural interpretation of behavior.??? [Watson-Gegeo 1988, p. 576] The ethnographer observes a learning environment, noting all the interactions that are taking place. He then describes the outcome of those interactions and the participants??™ understanding of their actions. Some people mistake ethnography with qualitative and natural research. While similar, ethnographic research distinguishes itself by focusing on holism and by treating culture as vital to the analysis.
Ethnography puts a large focus on the behavior of people in groups and cultural patterns that come up in that behavior. It also explains every action or behavior in its relation to the whole system, which it is a part of. The ethnographic researcher creates a theoretical framework, which he then uses to direct his attention to specific situations within the research. ???If observation is not guided by an explicit theoretical framework, it will be guided only by the observer??™s??¦values, attitudes, and assumptions about ???what sorts of things make up the world [or universe of study], how they are related, and how they act.??? [p. 578]
Emic-Etic analysis is a characteristic of ethnography. It calls for the ethnographer to see each situation through the eyes of its participants and not through the eyes of the observer. Emic analysis refers to the cultural perspectives, interpretations of the participants and how they use them to derive knowledge, as well as guide their own behavior. Emit terms, concepts and categories focus on the participants??™ behavior observed by the ethnographer. Thus, emic analysis paves the way for ???etic extensions,??? [p. 580] which make comparisons possible. Ethnographic comparisons depend on detailed emic work.
An ethnographer??™s goal is to come up with a complete theory of the settings and culture of a learning environment. In order to reach this goal, an ethnographer must observe the learning environment, interview its participants, use audio and videotaping for closer analysis of the interactions, as well as collect documents and materials used in the environment. A complete ethnographic report should present examples that are a ???result of systematic selection of representative examples. [p. 585]
Ethnography has become popular in ESL because there a few existing extensive studies of the ESL learning environment. Since culture plays such a big role in ESL, it is only natural that ethnographic study is called for. Students pick up language in various diverse environments. The student-teacher relationship is a perfect example. In a Japanese school, the teacher is always respected by the students and plays a small role in the parenting of the student. However, in the United States, the teacher is frequently disrespected by student and is expected to serve as a surrogate parent during the day. The American teacher is also always blamed for the lack of progress students make. The two environments teach the same material but have a very different culture.
The author ends the article with a summary of ethnographic research, pointing out the importance of ???systematic, detailed and rigorous??? [p. 588] research that is needed for a complete and successful ethnographic study.

References
Watson-Gegeo, A. K. (2008). Ethnography in ESL: Defining the essentials. TESOL Quarterly, 22, 575-589.

Big-Cola vs. Coca-Cola & Pepsi

[pic]

Prof. titular: Dra. Rosario Beatriz Toro Palacios

Prof. tutor: Mtra. Cristina Villarreal Garza

Actividad de Investigacion
[pic]

???Big-Cola Vs. Coca-Cola & Pepsi???

14 de Octubre del 2006

Big-Cola Vs Coca-Cola y Pepsi

Introduccion / Antecedentes.

El mercado de las bebidas refrescantes, siempre fue conocido como un mercado dominado por los grandes monstruos de Coca-Cola y PepsiCo. Estas dos empresas siempre han estado compitiendo una con otra para ver quien ocupa el primer lugar en ventas, crecimiento e introduccion de nuevas bebidas refrescantes en mercados a nivel mundial. Debido a esta competencia monopolica los precios de las bebidas refrescantes siempre habian estado a la alza por mucho tiempo, dejando al consumidor ninguna otra opcion mas que adquirir de sus bebidas.

Debido a esta necesidad del mercado aparece Big-Cola. Esta bebida es un producto de ???KR-Kola Real, una embotelladora peruana fundada en 1988 por la familia Ananos en tiempos de ataques terroristas???.[1] Esta ???nueva??? embotelladora abre el mercado promoviendo bebidas refrescantes de cola a un precio de 10 a 20% menos que sus competidores como Coca-Cola y Pepsi, logrando atraer un mercado nuevo e inclusive quitandole clientes a ambas empresas debido a su bajo precio y calidad en sus bebidas. La embotelladora peruana ya se ha expandido por Peru, Venezuela, Ecuador y Mexico teniendo gran aceptacion y poco a poco ha estado adquiriendo mayor participacion en el mercado.

Coca-Cola, como todos sabemos, es una de las marcas mas identificables en el mundo, tiene presencia en alrededor de 200 paises y es lider en el ramo de bebidas refrescantes de cola, la bebida ???Coca-Cola fue inicialmente vendida como medicina al precio de cinco centavos el vaso. Aunque Pemberton (su creador) deseaba que estuviera mezclada con agua comun, era vendida en dispensadores de bebidas carbonatadas, que eran populares en Estados Unidos, ya que en la epoca se creia que el agua carbonatada era buena para la salud.

Pemberton alegaba que Coca-Cola curaba varias enfermedades, incluyendo la adiccion a la morfina, dolores estomacales, neurastenia, dolores de cabeza e impotencia???.[2] El negocio fue comprado por un hombre llamado Asa Candler en 1888 y en 1895, la primera fabrica fue construida en Dallas Texas y todavia esta en funcionamiento hasta el dia de hoy.

Por otra parte, PepsiCo fue fundada por Donald Kendall, presidente y CEO de Pepsi-Cola, y Herman W. Lay, accionista y CEO de Frito-Lay. La compania fue creada a traves de la fusion de estas dos companias, Pepsi-Cola fue creada en 1890 por Caleb Bradham. La compania ha estado compitiendo desde antano con coca cola y entre los dos tienen practicamente acaparado el mercado de bebidas refrescantes, PepsiCo reporta ventas de $510 millones de dolares y tiene alrededor de 19,000 empleados.

En el presente trabajo se plantea un analisis interno (FODA) comparativo entre Big-Cola y las dos principales empresas de refrescos de cola en el mundo, para determinar las capacidades y deficiencias de la empresa, asi como el mercado de oportunidades y las amenazas del ambiente externo.

Desarrollo.

Big-Cola traslado su cerebro operativo a Mexico, la empresa controla desde territorio azteca sus operaciones en Peru, Venezuela, Ecuador y ahora tambien en Costa Rica. El crecimiento en el mercado mexicano, obligo a la firma de origen peruano, a instalarse en Mexico al iniciar operaciones en marzo del 2002.

???Big Cola en Mexico planea invertir 10 millones de dolares en su quinta planta refresquera en el pais???,[3] senalo su director corporativo de Comunicacion e Imagen, Alfredo Paredes.

La idea de Big-Cola es mantener la estrategia para 2009 de obtener 10% del mercado nacional, sobre todo porque en el norte existe un alto consumo, principalmente en la epoca de calor, evidentemente hay que desarrollar unos 40 mil puntos de venta en la planta y la idea es llegar a 400 mil en el 2009.

Tambien la empresa peruana que produce la marca Big-Cola en Mexico con relativo exito, esta planeando incursionar en el mercado cervecero de nuestro pais.

El proyecto cervecero tardaria en ponerse en pleno funcionamiento entre un ano y un ano y medio; simplemente construir la planta llevaria ocho meses, sin considerar el tiempo que tomaria darle luz verde.

Sin embargo, es bien conocido que el negocio del agua y las hidratantes tienen mas posibilidades, porque es donde se tiene mas experiencia, destacando que cualquiera de estos productos tiene ya un espacio disponible para su fabricacion, 25 mil metros cuadrados de terrenos en el Estado de Puebla.

Mexico ha representado el 43% del total de ventas de Big-Cola, bajo el concepto mercadologico “Me too”. De entrar al mercado cervecero, la estrategia seria la misma: Produccion de cerveza de bajo precio (Marca B).

Por el momento, Big-Cola esta nuevamente en campana de reforzamiento con spots en TV y otros medios tradicionales. La marca es principalmente distribuida en Mexico, Peru, Venezuela y Costa Rica aunque se reporta lista para ser introducida en Guatemala proximamente.

???Ajegroup, fabricante de Big Cola, espera alcanzar un 12% de participacion en el mercado de refrescos en Mexico al cierre de 2006, con la introduccion de nuevos productos a sus portafolios y la apertura de su nueva planta de Hermosillo, Sonora???.[4] Ademas de Big Cola, Ajegroup tambien tiene dentro de su portafolio de productos; agua embotellada, refrescos de sabores y piensa incursionar en bebidas light, adelgazantes, antioxidantes, energizantes y con vitaminas.

Firmas productoras de bebidas ya estan tomando precauciones para contrarrestar un posible lanzamiento que haga competencia a sus productos. La decision no es facil para Big-Cola; por un lado, en el caso de la cerveza tendria que verselas con un rival fuerte como la Cerveceria Cuauhtemoc Moctezuma, mientras que por el otro lado, en agua embotellada o bebidas energeticas tendria nuevamente a sus rivales Coca-Cola y PepsiCo como una de las marcas lideres de tan saturado mercado en nuestro pais.

Hoy en dia lo que sucede en el mercado de las Colas donde, por un lado, Coca-Cola y PepsiCo mantienen precios altos, mientras que por el otro, el producto de origen peruano Big-Cola ha entrado con precios bajos y esta ganando un muy importante porcentaje de mercado.

Hablando de costos, en el caso de Big-Cola, tenemos una inversion en publicidad moderada en comparacion con PepsiCo y Coca-Cola, a su ves Big Cola tiene gastos de distribucion reducidos con pequenos transportistas que llegan directamente a las bodegas, adicional a esto, Big-Cola no tiene que pagar derechos de marcas extranjeras como lo es el caso de Coca-Cola y PepsiCo. Estas diferencias, le han ayudado en gran medida a Big-Cola a lograr lanzar sus productos de bebidas gaseosas a un menos costo que las empresas gigantes.

Otro de los factores que intervienen mucho es que Big Cola aun no transporta mercancia a nivel mundial como lo seria el caso de Coca-Cola y PepsiCo, sin o que se mueve unicamente en cierta zona lo que le ocasiona economizar en gastos de transporte, si a esto le agregamos la publicidad moderada y los ahorros en derechos de marca, no es de extranarse que Big Cola pueda lanzar sus bebidas a precios muchos mas bajos que sus competidores gigantes y poder asi obtener o adquirir participacion en el mercado.

Esquematizandolo tenemos lo siguiente:

|Costos |Big Cola |Coca-Cola |PepsiCo |
|Derechos |Excento |Paga |Paga |
|de Marca | | | |
|Publicidad |Moderada |Alta |Alta |
|Gastos Transportacion |Bajos |Alto |Alto |
|Precio Bebida |Bajo |Relativo |Relativo |
|Mano de Obra |Moderada |Alto |Alto |

Segun el director corporativo de comunicacion de Big-Cola, Alfredo Paredes, dice: ???El mercado que consume Big-Cola se ha dado cuenta de las instalaciones que tenemos, del uso de tecnologia muy moderna, inclusive superior a la que utilizan nuestros competidores, y de que en terminos de sabor no es un refresco que sea barato por que no sepa bien, como ha sido el caso del surgimiento de otras marcas???[5].

Asi mismo, Paredes senalo que los grandes competidores siguen la pauta de Big Cola con versiones mas baratas y mas grandes, pero sus gastos de publicidad son muy altos en comparacion con Ajegroup y quien paga toda esa publicidad y excesos es el consumidor final.

Considerando los factores descritos anteriormente, nos podemos dar cuenta de las ventajas competitivas, y el porque Big-Cola ha empezado a tener gran participacion en el mercado con vistas de mayor crecimiento en los anos por venir.

???En Mexico se consumen aproximadamente 100,000 millones de litros de refresco al ano, de los cuales, el 10% los produce Ajegroup???.5 Su participacion de mercado en terminos de precio es entre el 7% y el 7.5%. La compania cree que puede tener un crecimiento importante ya que todavia no esta presente en el 60% de los puntos de venta.

Para PepsiCo y Coca-Cola resulta un poco complicado poder bajar sus precios como lo hace Big- Cola y seguir obteniendo ingresos, esto debido a que estas marcas gigantes no pueden estar exentos de ciertos gastos fijos de los cuales Big-Cola si logra evitar aun. Lo interesante seria ver que sucede con Big-Cola cuando empiece a lanzarse al mercado mundial, y ver como maneja los precios y costos, que poco a poco deberan por su naturaleza ir a la alza.

Continuacion se presenta un analisis FODA (Fuerzas, oportunidades, debilidades y amenazas) de Big-Cola, Coca-Cola, y PepsiCo. Con la finalidad de comprender las principales fuerzas de competencia que tiene Big-Cola, contra sus dos principales competidores a nivel mundial, lo que permitira decidir la estrategia a seguir.

Analisis FODA

|?  |BIG-COLA |COCA-COLA |PEPSICO |
|FORTALEZAS |Costos Bajos |Marca Reconocida a Nivel Mundial |Marca Reconocida a Nivel Mundial |
| |Maquinaria de Alta Calidad |Lider en venta de bebidas de cola|Segundo Lugar en venta de bebidas|
| |Gran Aceptacion en Mexico |Fuerte Capital para Inversion |Fuerte Capital para Inversion |
| |Empresa en Crecimiento |Amplia Gamma de Productos |Amplia Gamma de Productos |
| |Muy buena Red de distribucion |Fuertes Aliados |Fuertes Aliados |
| |?  |Presencia en mas de 200 Paises |Presencia en mas de 200 Paises |
|DEBILIDADES |Poca participacion de mercado |Costos Altos |Costos Altos |
| |No cuenta con gran capital |Precios poco flexibles |Precios poco flexibles |
| |inversion | | |
| |Pequena Empresa |?  |?  |
|OPORTUNIDADES |Empresa en Expansion |Continuar Expansion |Continuar Expansion |
| |Potencial Mercado en Mexico |Creacion de Nuevos Productos |Creacion de Nuevos Productos |
| |Atacar a Competidores con Precio |Fuertes Inversiones en MKT |Fuertes Inversiones en MKT |
| |Ampliar gamma de bebidas |Diferenciacion de Producto |Diferenciacion de Producto |
| |Mejorar redes de distribucion |?  |?  |
|AMENAZAS |Empresas monopolicas de bebidas |Fabricantes pequenos de bebidas |Fabricantes pequenos de bebidas |
| |Bebidas sustitutas |?  |?  |
| |Nuevas Empresas Emergentes |?  |?  |

Conclusiones.

Segun las 5 fuerzas competitivas de Porter, Big Cola tiene que tener muy en cuenta lo que implica las amenazas de nuevas entradas al mercado de productos similares, como lo vivio Coca-Cola y Pepsi cuando Big-Cola entro al mercado donde estas dos marcas ya eran reconocidas internacionalmente, la segunda competencia es el poder de negociacion de clientes, en el cual Big Cola necesita entender cual es el impacto de la negociacion de sus clientes. La tercera fuerza competitiva es la amenaza de nuevos productos y servicios sustitutos, para este caso seria la entrada o la competencia con otras bebidas refrescantes como el Gatorade, Powerade, entre otras. La cuarta fuerza es el poder de negociacion de los proveedores, para asi llegar a la quinta fuerza, esta le dara una idea de como la industria lucha por una posicion entre competidores como Coca-Cola y Pepsi[6].

Para el caso de Big-Cola, el precio y el costo es parte fundamental de su ventaja competitiva. Sin embrago, tanto Coca-Cola como PepsiCo, deben redoblar esfuerzos para incrementar el valor agregado de sus productos dentro de la cadena de valor, si es que desean seguir compitiendo con un precio alto en el mercado.

El principio de administracion estrategica para Big-Cola, si quiere continuar creciendo, debe ser incrementar las actividades que realiza la empresa y que crean valor agregado en sus productos ante el cliente, sin incrementar su precio de venta. Lo cual puede parecer muy complicado, e implica un mayor esfuerzo, pero evitara que otros competidores se posicionen en su mercado. Dicho valor debe ser relevante para el cliente y competitivo (un precio adecuado) en el mercado.

El caso de Big-Cola es muy interesante, e ilustra un buen ejemplo de la aplicacion de una estrategia para enfrentar al mercado con las capacidades y deficiencias internas de la empresa. Por otra parte, permite aplicar herramientas de analisis que nos permiten prever las oportunidades y las amenazas del mercado en un futuro proximo. Lo cual es un fundamento de la administracion estrategica, que permite brincar los obstaculos del mercado y asegurar un exito competitivo.

De igual manera, nos pone a pensar que aunque un producto este bien posicionado dentro del mercado, en este caso la industria de bebidas energeticas, no quiere decir que otro producto pueda llegar a competir por un lugar en la mente del consumidor, y esto nos queda muy claro con la lectura del Capitulo 3 del libro Crafting and Executing Strategy, que nos muestra cuales son las tipicas ???armas??? para competir en el mercado y atraer a los clientes, y una de ellas, que bien aplica Big-Cola, es entrar al mercado con precios bajos, mejores productos, altos niveles de publicidad, mejor servicio al cliente, entre otras cosas.

Con esto podemos concluir, que toda empresa puede competir en el mercado siempre y cuando tenga las armas correctas y que pueda aplicarlas en el momento adecuado.
Bibliografia.

??? Arthur A. Thompson Jr., A.J. Strickland III, John E. Gamble. Crafting and Executing Strategy: The Quest for competitive advantage / Concepts & Cases. 15? Edicion. McGraw Hill 2005.

??? Hipermarketing Tecnologia con Sentido de Negocio, Oct 11. Ataque Sorpresa de:
o http://www.hipermarketing.com/nuevo%204/columnas/horacio/nivel3surprise.html

??? Wikipedia La Enciclopedia Libre, Coca-Cola de:
o http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coca-Cola

??? Pepsi Company. Historia de:
o http://www.pepsico.com/PEP_Company/History/index.cfm#

??? Top Trends. Vision Estrategica de los mercados de productos de consumo:
o http://www.top-trends.com/jun_ago2004/noticias_fabricantes.html#13

??? Briefblog. Publicidad & Marketing:
o http://www.briefblog.com.mx/archivos/2005/06/08/123.php

??? Invierte Coca Cola. Biblioteca Digital:
o http://0-proquest.umi.com.millenium.itesm.mx:80/pqdlinkdid=71 993184&sid=1&Fmt=3&clientId=23693&RQT=309&VName=PQD
———————–
[1] http://www.hipermarketing.com/nuevo%204/columnas/horacio/nivel3surprise.html
[2] http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coca-Cola

[3] Biblioteca Digital. Publicacion: Transporte Siglo XXI. Proveedor: Grupo Comercial XXI. Fecha: 10 de Julio de 2006. Copyright 2005, T21.
[4] Biblioteca Digital. Publicacion: Infosel News. Proveedor: Terra Networks Mexico S.A. de C.V. Fecha: 15 de Junio de 2006.
[5] Biblioteca Digital. Publicacion: Infosel News. Proveedor: Terra Networks Mexico S.A. de C.V. Fecha: 15 de Junio de 2006.
[6] Dra. Rosario Beatriz Toro Palacios. Video Modulo II- http://videouv.itesm.mx- Estrategia, Estructura y Procesos de la Organizacion

Ethnographic

“Culture is the collective programming of the mind which distinguishes the members of one category of people from another.” (Hofstede 1984)
Culture according dictionary.com culture the quality in a person or society that arises from a concern for what is regarded as excellent in arts, letters, manners, scholarly pursuits, etc. (dictionary.com)
I was surprised that this course made me open my eyes to cultural difference in education. To me culture is what makes us who we are. I was raised in a rural area in North Carolina. I had loving and caring parents and a large extend family. My siblings and I were expected to go to school and do our best. The one thing that my parents, like most parents in my culture, did not tolerate was misbehavior.
My house growing up was nestled in a neighborhood that consisted of nothing but family members. I always had aunts to watch over me or cousins running around to play with. This is typical of people in my culture. Due to this up bringing I am extremely family oriented. I believe that family helps shape us into the people we are. As a parent family is the main thing I continue to stress that in my own children.
Neither of my parents attended college and their attitude towards education was just okay as long as we went to school and did our best, home life was good. I have participated in sports for as long as I can remember. My father was a firm believer that if left without something to do children will get into trouble. My parents did however have a zero tolerance for misconduct and disrespect. The respect aspect of my parent??™s rules was difficult because many of my teachers suffered from deficit thinking.
Castro stated ???They continue to hold is conceptions about minority childrens literacy abilities, fail to recognize the pervasiveness of racial inequality, hold lower expectations for students of color, deny the significance of race in their practices, and lack a sense of themselves as cultural beings (Castro,2010; Edwards & Kulman, 2010; Mclntyre, Hulan, & Maher, 2010).
Being the only African American in a classroom often times and taught by dominantly white teacher I noticed that they did not always expect the best from me. I can remember a time that I did not have to do assignments because they assumed that we could not afford the extra materials or no one could help me. The absolute crazy part was we were an upper middle class family and my father had been retired since I was born. It wasn??™t until middle school that these misconceptions were erased. I learned at a very young age that I could get over on certain teachers and it took years to get rid of that mentality.

As I read and reflect in the class I realize that some of the research I have come across in my own life. Bolgatz states ???White students and teachers cling to color-blind and ???colormute??™ ideologies preferring to avoid seeing, hearing, or speaking about race generally??? (Bolgatz 2005; Pollock 2004).
The history of my ancestors was always taught to us. I was also taught by my parents to stand up for what I believe in. I can remember in the 6th grade February came and it was time for social studies and we were studying Christopher Columbus. I asked my teacher why we were not learning about black people my teacher stood there mouth open and said nothing. Being the only black child in the class my inquiry was dismissed and the lesson went on. After class I asked him again I was ignored once again. I went home and spoke to my dad and he told me that if I felt strongly about it then I should continue to pursue it. The next day as I entered into social studies I was stopped by my teacher he told me that there was not a great enough need for black history in our class. It took me a while to understand what he meant however I did not give up and later that month we did have a small lesson.
A significant body of research demonstrates that teachers who share the cultural and racial heritage of their students, or draw meaningfully upon it, are often more successful with students of color than those who do not (Dance 2002; Ladson-Billings 1994; Quiocho and Rios 2000). In conclusion the way we think and feel are important to all of us. I believe that all educators should have to examine what makes us who we are. Until educators understand how they think and what stereotypes we have about other cultures and ethnic groups.

Works Cited

Bolgatz, J. 2005. Talking race in the classroom. New York: Teachers College Press.
culture. (n.d.). Collins English Dictionary – Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition. Retrieved July 14, 2012, from Dictionary.com website: http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/culture
Hofstede, G. (1984). National cultures and corporate cultures. In L.A. Samovar & R.E. Porter (Eds.), Communication Between Cultures. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
Dance, L.J. (2002). Tough fronts: The impact of street cul-ture on schooling. New York: Routledge.

Big Buigness

The construction of railroads in the 1800s changed the United States by combining the nation. This had both negative and positive effects between the east and the west. During the building of the railroads there where many accidents which caused death and injury to many immigrants. This was the result of unsafe working conditions and short dead lines. It also helped the big business owners to get a lot of money.
For the east and the west, the construction of railroads had many positive effects. The settlers of Kansas found the greatest uses of the Great Plains. The great uses of the Great Plains were mainly as the growing of cash crops ( tobacco, cotton, and grain). . Another positive effect is that railroads helped with cultural diffusion, making trade easier. They also made it easier for travel, making another way of transportation. The owner of the railroads (John D Rockefeller) had so much money from the railroads that he used to hand out dimes when the country was in the depression.
Although many positive effects were brought to the attention of John D. Rockefeller ( owner of many railroads ways) many there were negative effects such as the death of Chinese immigrants many were killed, by being ran over by the trains. They had to deal with loss of limbs and being crushed between cars. The Chinese were upset because they had low wages and really bad working conditions. They made six dollars and three of it was taken away for food, clothing and shelter as a place to sleep, so they made three dollars a week. While all this was happening, the Natives became worried about the loss of their food because the trains had plows on the front of them so they could go through the buffalo with out derailing or damaging the train.. The Native Americans were also scared that they were going to lose their land to railroad companies . Therefore they did not allow people to come on their land.
Even though the founding of the Great Plains due to the construction of the railroads had been the cause of many successes the biggest negative effect had been the many injuries and deaths of the immigrants as a result of the building of the railroads. The greatest positive effect was it settled all the land in the west and we became one nation.

Ethnographic

In an effort to more thoroughly understand vegan and vegetarian customers, I went to visit a local vegan and vegetarian favorite suggest to me by a friend in one of the interview. The stop I went to was the long a waited bakery called BabyCakes NYC. New York based BabyCakes NYC is a specialized bakery dedicated to creating high quality, vegan, mostly organic and gluten free confections. Babycakes is located in downtown Los Angeles, in Pacific Electric Lofts at 6th and Main streets (next to Coles French Dip). As the door opened, a warm, sweet air of sugar greets you. The store is a quaint little bakery with sitting inside and out. Trays of perfectly, delicious donuts, biscuits, buns, brownies, breads, muffins, cookies, and cupcakes full the bakery. Customers range from vegan and von-vegan. One woman I interview was picking up an order for her son that need gluten-free food because of health problems. She said, ??? Having a child with health problems, especially gluten, makes choosing places to eat exceedingly difficult. I very grateful for BabyCake NYC The stuff was warm, friendly and will to help. I asked a stuff what was good and what BabyCakes NYC was know for she said ???The donut is BabyCakes NYC specialty and a must try. The thing about the donut,??? she said, ???is that it??™s not actually a donut, not in any traditional sense at least. ? Sure, it??™s round and has a hole in it, but so does a bagel. ? But while the name may be misleading, the flavor certainly is not. ? These round-hole-cakes are nothing but delicious. ? The texture is that of a slightly dense, moist cake. The cinnamon and sugar coated one is heaven and lasted for only a matter of seconds.??? The atmosphere is sweet with a 1950??™s feel; all of the workers wear vintage aprons and pink outfits. The small bakery is surrounded in old-fashioned pictures, doilies and decorations. One of the customers waiting for an order kindly took the time and answer question from our group survey:
1. Are you a vegetarian or a vegan
Vegan
2. What led you to the decision to become a vegetarian or vegan
-Animal Rights
-Better Health
3. Which type of vegetarian are you
Vegan (excludes all animal products from diet)
4. Which of these lifestyles do you favor along with being a vegan or a vegetarian
Organic (“Going Green”) and Being active (Exercise regularly)
5. Do you also use organic or vegan clothing and accessories If so which ones
none of the above (I use regular made clothing and accessories)
6. Is there any particular charity or cause that you feel the strongest about
No not really ??“ I guess the ASPCA
7. which types of stores do you shop at for vegan/ vegetarian food, clothing and beauty products Which brands of vegan or organic products (food, clothing, accessories, and beauty products) do you favor
Morningstar Farms and Follow your Heart
8. What are the challenges and obstacles you face as a vegan or a vegetarian
none
9. How much do you spend weekly on green products
Between $50-$100
10. On a scale from 1 (lowest value) – 5 (highest value) how would you rate these values in your lifestyle
a world of peace 2
self- respect 3
a comfortable life 4
happiness/inner peace 5
pleasure 1

Big Brother Big Business

Big Brother Big Business
The information in Big Brother Business by David Faber is rather scary. It is a known fact that everything a person does is recorded, but having a person??™s driving habits recorded, putting a chip in a person, or recording a person??™s internet searches all border on the line of invasion of privacy. The legal environment has not caught up with technology, and once it catches up, advancements will only lead to more advancements, and the previous movements may seem trivial.
The ???black box??? in personal vehicles, along with GPS systems, can record a person??™s every move. Does anyone really want this Yes, recording the few seconds before and after an accident can prove to be helpful. It can prove who was at fault in the accident, but using it for reasons beyond that are bordering on privacy issues. No person wants their personal driving habits recorded. I agree with Howard Boyle, who uses GPS in his employees??™ phones to track his employees??™ every move at any moment in the day to ensure productivity. They are on the clock, and this is a way to verify that his employees are where they are supposed to be when they are supposed to be there. This is not an invasion of privacy due to the fact that Howard Boyle is paying them for a service. If his customers are not happy with the customer service they have received due to an employee taking too long to report in, Howard can look up their location and find out immediately what the problem is. The fact that your cell phone can track all the places that you have been while it is on and then the information is stored is rather scary. I personally don??™t feel that this information could be good for anyone. Yes, it may track down a person??™s whereabouts if in question, but in the wrong hands it could have dire consequences.
All persons should be aware that they are being recorded in public. One should always act as if they are on camera when in public. People who register for those preferred customer cards should also be aware that their shopping habits are being recorded as well. Marketing analysts came up with this marketing strategy to record and keep copy of which customers bought which products. This helps the marketing department when deciding who and how to distribute information about products or coupons. The recording also helps marketing departments better serve their target market. When companies can observe customers??™ shopping habits, they can better see how the customers??™ needs and wants are being met. If a customer idles too long in an aisle, an employee may be alerted to the customer so that an employee can give better customer service so that the guest can make the best decision. This way all the customers needs are being met within the store.
Putting a chip in a person seems to be out of science-fiction, even putting it in your animals is rather weird. I have checked out the chip that you put in your animals. It stores your address, your name, phone number, the pet??™s name, and if they have had their shots. This helps locating the animal if they become lost. While this seems like a great idea, it is just another way that people can track you and your habits; it??™s just one more list to be added to. I am not exactly sure what to think about putting this chip in people no matter what the excuse. Even a person who has nothing to hide should not have their every move recorded during every moment of every day. This is definitely an invasion of privacy. Parents use this method to locate their children have some serious control issues. You have to raise your children to the best of your abilities, teach them right from wrong, and pray they make the right decisions in life. Even if a parent tracks every one of their children??™s moves, the children may be scared of doing something, but will act out in defiance in other ways.
Recording a person??™s internet searches is a very thin line of the privacy issues, and the legal environment needs to walk this line very carefully. As in the case of the man who used the search engine Google to search gun shots to the chest, and insurance policies due to homicide did prove to be useful, but only because they were able to find evidence. What would have happened if the police did not find any internet searches that did not implicate him in the murder of his wife Would this then be an invasion of privacy I think the answer to that question is yes.
I think the legal environment should evaluate the technological environment every year and make the adjustments needed so the laws keep up with the advancements. The thought of everything I do being stored in data warehouses is pretty scary and maddening, and even though I??™m not doing anything illegal or wrong, I still don??™t want my every move, internet search, driving habits, my cell phone usage, or where I was when my cell phone was on being recorded, saved, and used against me.

Ethnicity

In this essay I will be discussing what a Community Needs Assessment is. I will detail and explain different types of need within a Community, the data required for a CNA and how it is obtained. Finally I will summarise the principles that underpin the steps involved in the process of undertaking a CNA, all using relative literature from a variety of sources.

A CNA is an extensive description of the needs of a group of people that distinguish themselves as a community. A CNA is designed to work as a guide for an action that takes both the identified need and the available resources into accoun. A CNA highlights the importance of community participation in health care planning and delivery. Community involvement can have a positive effect on the community by sparking excitement and enthusiasm surrounding possible change or improvement. The purpose of a CNA is to be used in the developing of a plan to primarily increase the quality of life within a community.

Unfortunately there is no rulebook for carrying out a CNA and therefore the Community Nurse who is going to carry out such an assessment requires a certain level of expertise in community assessment to be a facilitator. The CNA also requires interpretation and evaluation and should always be conducted within the perimeters of Evidence Based Practice. A knowledge of the Community??™s structure, population and social system is vital before individual needs can be met, as the population may present with health needs relative to their environment, ie. Respiratory issues within heavily polluted areas or skin cancers in areas with high temperatures and minimal education.

???If you say that someone or something needs something else, you mean they should have it, or would get an advantage from having it. Needs are also described as ???something you need to stay alive??? . In communities people take, give and swap items and services that they require or want and this helps to fulfill a large amount of people??™s needs but not all.

Big Bang

The Big Bang Theory

At this moment in time the most popular theory for the creation of our universe as we know it is the ???Big Bang Theory??? which is estimated to have occurred 13.72(?±0.12) billion years ago1. There is much evidence to support this theory however it also posses some problems.

Evidence For the Big Bang

The first piece of evidence for the big bang I will be discussing is the observed red shift of the electromagnetic radiation of stars and galaxies. This effect was first noted by American physicist Edwin Hubble circa 1919 and in 1929 he published his findings2. His research had shown that the spectra of the light from distant light sources shift towards the red end of the electromagnetic spectrum3. The result of this is shown to the right. The two spectra compare the absorption lines of distant galaxies to the right with that of the Sun on the left. There is an obvious increase in the wavelengths expected from the distance source.

The reason for the increase in wavelength of the electromagnetic radiation from a distance is source is that the universe is expanding. This means that it appears that stars, galaxies and nebul? are moving away. The extent of the red shift of a source can be found by using the formula below:

[pic]

Where z is the red shift ratio, ?0 is the expected wavelength without considering the effect of red shift and where ? is the observed wavelength.

Hubble postulated that there is a linear relationship between the recessional velocity, v, and its distance, d, i.e. [pic]. To write this in the form of a formula we must include Hubble??™s constant, H0:

[pic]

The units of v, H0 and d, are km-1, km-1?·Mpc -1 and Mpc respectively.

The graph overleaf shows recessional velocity against the observed body from the observer.

[pic]

Using this formula we can also approximate the age of the universe as we know that [pic] and since [pic] then [pic]. However, this will only give an approximation of the universe??™s age as the rate at which the galaxies and other celestial bodies will have decreased due to the effects of gravitational attraction between the bodies. This estimate for the age of the universe gives a value of between 9-20 billion years3.

This proposed expansion of the universe means that the theory predicts that the universe had to have expanded from a single point. This point is called a singularity which in theory has almost infinite density as the entire mass of the universe is concentrated into a space smaller than the volume of an electron7.

Evidence that the universe is expanding also includes the distribution of the galaxies. The theory that space is expanding does not mean that the galaxies and stars themselves are moving but the space in between becomes stretched and therefore this means the galaxies become further apart. Their distribution is rather regular and this suggests that the expansion of the universe is the same throughout.

Further of evidence for the expansion of the universe, and therefore its origins being in the big bang, is the cosmic microwave background radiation throughout the universe. This is, as the name suggests, the constant presence of electromagnetic radiation, strongest in the microwave section of the electromagnetic spectrum, detected in any direction that a radio telescope is pointing. This was first discovered by American and German astronomers Robert Wilson and Arno Penzias in 19633. When they were using a radio antenna to study emissions of radio waves from space they noticed an emission in their spectra that was detected regardless of which way they directed their antenna. This was unusual because a source of electromagnetic radiation in space can normally be localised which was not possible with the emission they had detected here. The distribution of the cosmic background microwave radiation is show below ??“ the blue representing the least radiation and conversely the red represents the highest concentration of background radiation.
A Timeline of the Universe3, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13

t=0
The big bang creates the universe as we know it
Followed by the Planck era when the four fundamental forces, electromagnetism, gravity and the strong and weak nuclear forces, were all of equal strength and were possibly unified as one superforce.

t=10-43s
The Grand Unification epoch, during which the unification of all four forces begins to break down and the ratio of matter to antimatter begins to shift in favour of matter.

t=10-35s
The electroweak era allows the production of gauge bosons such as W?±, Z0 and the theorised Higgs boson. This period of time after the big bang is dominated by quarks and their antimatter counterparts.

t=10-10s
The hadron and lepton era leads to production of nucleons as quarks can become bound together with gluons, this also produces meson and other baryons. After this mutual annihilation of the matter and antimatter hadrons leaves the universe dominated by leptons and antileptons.

t=1s
Protons and neutrons are able to come together to form the nuclei of simple elements ??“ chiefly hydrogen, including deuterium, and helium as well as lithium.

t=10s
Mutual annihilation of many pair particles, mainly leptons and antileptons, leaves the universe being abundant in photons which interact with particles such as charged leptons, nuclei and protons for approximately the next 3?105 years.

t=180s
The first stable nuclei are able to form and by the time this era ends approximately 75% of the nuclei are hydrogen with about a third of the remaining nuclei being helium although there are very small amount of the nuclei of other elements.

t=3?105yr
Nuclei are finally able to combine with electrons resulting in the first atoms and the universe becomes transparent to cosmic background microwave radiation.

t=1?106yr
Stars are able to form for the first time as are protogalaxies along with quasars and these being to produce heavier elements than hydrogen and helium by nuclear fusion.

t=8?109yr
Our solar system comes into being with the Sun??™s gravitational attraction catching the remains of earlier stars and planets and satellites begin to form.

t=13.7?109yr
The present day.

One way in which we can look back in time is by studying high resolution images captured from space which show the light that left distance structures thousands, millions and billions of years ago. Below is the Hubble Ultra Deep Field image taken by the Hubble Space Telescope.

[pic]
Bibliography

1. http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009ApJS..180..330K
2. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hubble%27s_law
3. ???Quarks, Leptons and Hadrons??? by Jonathan Allday
4. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Redshift.png
5. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Redshift_blueshift.svg
6. ???Astrophysics and Cosmology??? by Roger Muncaster
7. http://atropos.as.arizona.edu/aiz/teaching/a204/images/Hubble_expansion.gif
8. http://www.rwc.uc.edu/koehler/astro/cmb.png
9. ???Stephen Hawking: Master of the Universe??? Channel 4
10. ???The Universe In A Nutshell??? Stephen Hawking
11. http://ssscott.tripod.com/BigBang.html
12. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_the_Big_Bang
13. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Graphical_timeline_of_the_Big_Bang
14. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Universe_expansion2.png
15. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Hubble_ultra_deep_field_high_rez_edit1.jpg
16. ???Understanding the Universe: From Quarks To the Cosmos??? by Don Lincoln
17. http://www.talkorigins.org/faqs/astronomy/bigbang.html
18. http://www.astro.ucla.edu/~wright/cosmology_faq.html
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