Shylock a Victim – Merchant of Venice

William Shakespeare is likely the world’s most famous playwright. He is considered a genius for his skill with words, his understanding of people and of human nature, and his sense of what really pleases an audience. In Shakespeare’s play, The Merchant of Venice, Shakespeare uses his great skill in writing to make a character appear as if he is both a villain and a victim. A victim can be defined as an unfortunate person who suffers from a destructive action or through the dishonesty of others.

Although Shylock is viewed by Christians in the play as a cruel man, Shylock is a victim because he is mistreated, betrayed and his possessions, culture and dignity are taken away from him, all because he is a Jew. Shylock is a victim of the play because he is mistreated. Shylock is being abused by Christians but mostly Antonio. Shylock says, “You call me misbeliever, cut-throat dog, / And spet upon my Jewish gaberdine, / And all for use of that which is mine own. ” (1. 3. 107-109).

Shylock shows through these lines that Antonio abuses him verbally and physically, as Antonio calls him names and spat on him, all because he lends money with interest. Another example of Shylock’s mistreatment is Christians insulting his faith. Lorenzo says, “If e’er the Jew her father come to heaven, / It will be for his gentle daughter’s sake. ” (2. 4. 33-34). Lorenzo believes that Christianity is the religion that is powerful enough to make anyone go to heaven. In these lines Shylock is viewed by Lorenzo as a faithless Jew, he is implying that Shylock’s Jewish faith is not strong enough to get him to heaven.

Therefore, Lorenzo is biased against anyone that is not a Christian, such as Shylock being a Jew. Also, Shylock is humiliated in court. He is looked down on by Christians during the trial. Before the Duke begin the proceedings he says, I am sorry for thee: thou art come to answer A stony adversary, an inhuman wretch Uncapable of pity, void and empty From any dram of mercy. ” (4. 1. 3-6). Through these lines it shows that the Duke feels pity for Antonio because of Shylock and describes Shylock as a non-human. It appears that the Duke feels more sympathy for Antonio.

One reason is because Antonio is a fellow Christian. Shylock is being betrayed throughout the entire play. When Jessica elopes with Lorenzo, a Christian, taking all of Shylock’s ducats and jewels with them, Shylock feels really deserted. Shylock says, “My own flesh and blood to rebel! ” (3. 1. 31). Even though Shylock seems to value his ducats more than his daughter, Shylock shows through this line that he also feels deceived by knowing that her one and only daughter turned against him. Another example of Shylock being betrayed is when Shylock is betrayed by his own bond.

When Shylock is ready to take his revenge by cutting Antonio’s flesh, Portia says, “For, as thou urgest justice, be assured / Thou shalt not have justice more that thou desir’st” (4. 1. 312-313). Portia suddenly reminds him that the bond only states a “pound of flesh” and doesn’t mention blood. Shylock can take his pound of flesh but reminds him that if a drop of Christian blood is been spilled, he will be considered guilty for taking the life of a Venetian and by law he will be punished. Portia’s conditions made Shylock and his bond powerless at the trial.

Shylock expects to get his revenge on Antonio, but it turns out to be that his bond has been turned against him. Near the end of the play, Shylock is also betrayed by the laws of Venice. When Shylock realizes that his bonds is useless, he changed his mind and agrees in taking three times the sum of what Antonio owes him instead. When Shylock knew that he can’t get anything, he drops the case but Portia stops Shylock reminding him of the penalty which results in the laws of Venice giving Shylock a horrible sentence because of threatening the life of Antonio.

Half of Shylock’s property would go to the state and the other half for Antonio, Shylock is also in danger facing the death penalty. Shylock becomes even more of a victim when the government of Venice takes Shylock’s possessions, culture and dignity away from him. Antonio says, So please my lord the duke, and all the court, To quit the fine for one half of his goods, I am content so he will let me have The other half in use, to render it, Upon his death, unto the gentleman That lately stole his daughter. Two things provided more, that, for this favour, He presently become a Christian;

The other, that he do record gift, Here in the court, of all he dies possess’d, Unto his son Lorenzo and his daughter. (4. 1. 377-387) Since he has plotted against the life of Antonio, the law says one half of his possessions must go to Antonio and the other half to the state. Antonio shows through these lines that he is willing to give mercy to Shylock and allows him to keep half of his fortune, provided that Antonio keeps the other half in trust for Jessica and Lorenzo after his death. Another example of Shylock being a victim is his culture taken away from him.

Antonio states that Shylock must immediately convert to Christianity as a part of his sentence. During the trial, Portia says, “Down therefore and beg mercy of the duke. ” (4. 1. 360). He was advised to practice mercy but insisted on the law. Now, through this words by Portia, Shylock must beg for mercy rather than a strict interpretation of the law. All the people who are present during the trial have seen that Shylock is shamed. In the play The Merchant of Venice, Shylock is a victim. He is simply rejected by the people in his society.

They treated Shylock as if he is not a human being because he is a Jew. Shylock is harmed by the hurtful words and actions of the people around him towards him and his faith, he is also betrayed by his own daughter, bond, and by the laws of the city in which he lives, and Shylock was shamed in court, as a part of his sentence he must surrender half of his riches and the other half will go to his daughter after his death, and he must convert to Christianity immediately. References Shakespeare, W. (2003). The Merchant of Venice, I. Waldron & M. Maitman, Eds. Toronto: Harcourt Canada. ———————– 5

Organisations Behaviour

|Assignment Title:Analysing Organisation Behaviour This assignment assesses your understanding of behaviour in organisations. Students are expected to demonstrate the knowledge and practical methods they have acquired regarding organisation behaviour, structure and culture, and explore issues among other things of motivation, communication, leadership, decision? making, power and organisational change. Your answers should reflect both a foundation of theory and an ability to apply the concepts in practice in the work environment.

TAKE ANY ONE (1) ORGANISATION WITH WHICH YOU ARE FAMILIAR and consider the behaviour of individuals and groups within that organisation. When required by the question, you should compare that organisation with other organisations, which may be competitors in the same industry, or others you know or have learned about. You should carefully set out and address each of the Tasks set out below. If you do this you will have met all the Assessment Criteria and so provided evidence that you have achieved each of the four (4) Learning Outcomes for this Unit.

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Task 1: Management and Leadership 1. 1 Compare the effectiveness of different leadership styles in different organisations. 1. 2 Explain how organisational theory underpins the practice of management. 1. 3 Evaluate the different approaches to management used by different organisations. Task 2: Structure and Culture 2. 1 Compare and contrast different organisational structures and culture. 2. 2 Explain how the relationship between an organisation’s structure and culture can impact on the performance of the business. 3. Discuss the factors which influence individual behaviour at work.

Task 3: Using Theories of Motivation 1. Discuss the impact that different leadership styles may have on motivation in organisations in periods of change. 2. Compares the application of different motivational theories within the workplace. 3. Evaluate the usefulness of a motivation theory for managers. Task 4: Developing Teamwork 4. 1 Explain the nature of groups and group behaviour within organisations. 4. 2 Discuss factors that may promote or inhibit the development of effective teamwork in organisations. 4. 3 Evaluate the impact of technology on team functioning within a given organisation.

Acc/546 Week 1 Assignment

Week 2 Discussion Questions Chapters 6 & 8 1. Why is audit planning so important? What is the most important step in audit planning? Why is this step so important? Posted on wed 5/8/2013 Responded to one classmates on 5/08/2013 Auditing planning is important because it helps the auditor determine his/her approach to the audit. There are two considerations that affect the approach: 1). Sufficient appropriate evidence must be accumulated to meet the auditor’s professional responsibility and 2). The cost of accumulating the evidence should be minimized. Concern for sufficient appropriate evidence and cost necessitates planning the engagement.

The plan should result in an effective audit approach at a reasonable cost. The most important step in audit planning is Phase I, to plan and design an audit approach. This step is important because this is where the auditor obtains an understanding of the entity and its environment. To adequately assess the risk of misstatements in the financial statements and to interpret information obtained throughout the audit, the auditor must have a thorough understanding of the client’s business and related environment, including knowledge of strategies and processes.

The auditor should study the client’s business model, perform analytical procedures and make comparisons to competitors. The auditor must also understand any unique accounting requirements of the client’s industry. Secondly, the auditor needs to understand internal control and assess control risk. The risk of misstatement in the financial statements is reduced if the client has effective controls over computer operations and transaction processing. The auditor identifies internal controls and evaluates their effectiveness, a process called assessing control risk.

If internal controls are considered effective, planned assessed control risk can be reduced and the amount of audit evidence to be accumulated can be significantly less than when internal controls are not adequate. Thirdly, the auditors assess risk of material misstatement. The auditor uses the understanding of the client’s industry and business strategies, as well as the effectiveness of controls, to assess the risk of misstatements in the financial statements. This assessment will then impact the audit plan and the nature, timing, and extent of audit procedures. 2. Describe the auditor’s responsibility for discovering illegal acts.

What barriers do you see in terms of their ability to accurately uncover fraud? What are the sources of the barriers? If possible, would you eliminate the barriers? If so, why? Posted on 5/9/2013 Illegal acts are defined in SAS 54 (AU 317) as violations of laws or government regulations other than fraud. Two examples of illegal acts are a violation of federal tax laws and a violation of the federal environment protection laws. The first course of action when an illegal act has been identified is to consider the effects on the financial statements, including the adequacy of disclosures.

These effects may be complex and difficult to resolve. For example, a violation of civil rights laws could involve significant fines, but it could also result in the loss of customers or key employees, which could materially affect future revenues and expenses. If the auditor concludes that the disclosures relative to an illegal act are inadequate, the auditor should modify the audit report accordingly. The auditor should also consider the effect of such illegal acts on the CPA firm’s relationship with management.

If management knew of the illegal act and failed to inform the auditor, it is questionable whether management can be believed in other discussions. The auditor should communicate with the audit committee or others of equivalent authority to make sure that they know of the illegal act. The communication can be oral or written. If it is oral, the nature of the communication and discussion should be documented in the audit files. If the client either refuses to accept the auditor’s modified report or fails to take appropriate remedial action concerning the illegal act, the auditor may find it necessary to withdraw from the engagement.

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If the client is publicly held, the auditor must also report the matter directly to the SEC. Such decisions are complex and normally involve consultation by the auditor with the auditor’s legal counsel. 3. As an auditor for Franken’s Markets, you discovered fraudulent activities. In your previous discussions with management, no one with the Franken organization identified fraudulent behavior or activity, and any questions relating to such matters were met with defensive behavior. How might you address this situation?

Post this in individual forum—answered on 05/8/2013 Who should be responsible for detecting fraud? Please post your answer to this question to your individual forum. For example, should it be the auditors, management, the board of directors, etc.? You don’t have to post an explanation—just your answer. We’ll discuss it once I compile the results from everyone’s answers. I’ll post a summary of everyone’s answers to this thread, and we’ll see which group receives the most votes. Miscellaneous topics:

What is the most valuable asset of an auditor, and how does it differ from the most valuable asset of an accountant? (posted on 05/09/2013) ETHICS AS A BARRIER: (POSTED ON 5/09/2013) Ethics is a code of conduct that dictates a person’s or group’s behavior. Many successful business owners understand the importance of ethical practice because without it, failure is probable. The result of a business that employs ethical practices will result in customer loyalty, and finding a company that you can trust is always in demand.

Though large oversight bodies such as the Securities and Exchange Commission attempt to regulate businesses into operating with ethical standards, maintaining integrity is the responsibility of every employee. Ethical behavior is a constant concern for professionals in every industry. Anyone who works with clients must be concerned about staying within company policies without running into ethical barriers. Whether the professional is a lawyer, social worker, doctor or police officer, ethical problems that can appear in any line of work include client confidentiality, reporting unethical behavior and engaging in conflicts of interest.

I believe that no one intentionally works for a company that does not uphold his or her beliefs, so I would have to say that in whatever career you choose you follow the policies established by that company, and hopefully you would conduct the necessary research to find out what the company is about. So my answer would be no, I don’t think that auditor’s ethical beliefs would be a barrier. As an auditor you know what your duties are and what rules and standards are in place for your profession. Made 2 posts on 05/10/2013 and posted synopsis to team folder

Habeas Corpus

RUNNING AHEAD: THE RIGHT OF HABEAS CORPUS ON THE WAR OF TERROR. POLITIC 201 Monday, April 29, 2013 RUNNING AHEAD: THE RIGHT OF HABEAS CORPUS ON WAR TERROR. Habeas Corpus. The meaning of Habeas Corpus comes from a Latin base meaning “you have the body” (National Archives). It refers to the right of a person to question his/her incarceration before a judge, intriguingly; the violation of the right of habeas corpus has not been the most severe of civil liberties granted not to Americans only, but many other countries. The right of Habeas Corpus protects a prisoner.

It allows a prisoner to point that his or her integrally guaranteed rights to fair treatment in a trial have been broken upon. The most recent controversy regarding habeas corpus was during the Bush administration when hundreds of suspected Afghan and Iraqi terrorists were imprisoned. (http://www. enotes. com). While telling about the Habeas Corpus and the war on terror, my main focus in writing this essay will be on the general meaning of Habeas Corpus, its relationship with civil liberties, its American and English history, its evolution in U.

S history of suspension. I will show the relevance of Habeas Corpus to the contempory U. S situation during the war on terror. I will also talk to about its interpretation by the U. S Supreme Court with the respect to “enemy combatants” or “illegal combatants”. To finish, I will give my own evaluation of various perspective on this topic expressed by justice of the Supreme Court, leaders in other branches of the Governments and commentators in both popular and academic media.

By definition, Habeas Corpus is one of a variety of writs that may be issued to bring a party before a court or judge, having as its function the release of the party from unlawful restraint or the right of a citizen to obtain such a writ. (http://www. habeascorpus. net). The RUNNING AHEAD: THE RIGHT OF HABEAS CORPUS ON WAR TEROR general meaning of Habeas Corpus in the U. S Constitution is the right by which someone can go to court and protest the validity of his/her imprisonment. The right of Habeas Corpus is the oldest human right in Anglo-Saxon law.

The concept originally becomes law in the 17th century in England when Catholics were considerated disloyal to the throne of King Charles II. It precedes the Magna Carta in 1215. It isn’t an original American concept. It becomes law in the west when England parliament decreed the Habeas Corpus Act of 1679 (http://www. constitution. org). The idea of Habeas Corpus may be Anglo-Saxon in its earliest use, but it was adopted by the U. S policy makers around 1789. According to Robert Searles Walker, the right of habeas corpus has been a bulwark against the unlimited excessive power of the executive power first in England the in the U.

S. throughout is U. S history, the Habeas corpus has continued his English tradition to be a check on executive power and upholding the separation of power. Recently, the writ of habeas corpus has been jeopardized by the indefinite incarceration of the alleged “enemy combatants” in Guantanamo bay, Cuba as part of Bush administration’s “war on terror” under the Military Commission Act of 2006. There are some examples of suspension of the right of habeas corpus in the U. S history. First, it was suspend by Abraham Lincoln during the civil war.

Lincoln used the Article I, Section 9 of the Constitution stating that “the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended, unless when in cases of rebellion and invasion the public safety may require it,” generally called the suspension clause. The right of habeas corpus as suspended for public safety. There were resistances about this suspension because people believed that the power of suspension of habeas corpus as in the hand of congress not the president. Critics say that this act was unconstitutional.

Lincoln defended himself by saying that constitution doesn’t say who has RUNNING AHEAD: THE RIGHT OF HABEAS CORPUS ON WAR TERROR. the right to suspend it or no. Claiming on July 4 that “the Constitution itself, is silent as to which, or who, is to exercise the power” of suspending the writ. He quoted the section 9 of the first article “All legislative Powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress of the United States”. “Lincoln suspended the right of habeas corpus without congressional authorization during the civil war.

After President Abraham Lincoln, there are other presidents who suspended that right. President Ulysses S. Grant suspended the writ, pursuant to congressional authorization, during Reconstruction. The U. S. military has also ignored habeas corpus at least once, albeit during a situation of martial law during wartime”. (http://ir. lawnet. fordham. edu). On October 2006, President Bush signed a law suspending the right of habeas corpus to person” determined by the United States” to be an “enemy combatants” in the global war on terror.

Like President Lincoln, president Bush actions dragged severe criticism mainly because there was no law in the United States that specially chose who should be or not an “enemy combatant. ” Bush used the Military Commission Act of 2006 to justify its action. President Bush and President Lincoln based their actions on the danger of war and was both criticized for attack to the constitution. In the years since the terrorist’s attacks of 9/11, numbers of people have been detained by the U. S Government as part of its” war on terror” at the Guantanamo naval bay in Cuba and Bagram Airfield in Afghanistan.

Most of those detainees are in indefinite detention and have neither been with a crime nor qualify with the status of war prisoner. The detainees have decided to use habeas corpus to challenge the legality of their detention, but “the United States government initially took the position that habeas corpus was not available to detainees because of their status as “enemy combatants” and their location outside the sovereign territory of the United States”. (http://digitalcommons. pace. edu). RUNNING AHEAD: THE RIGHT OF HABEAS CORPUS ON WAR OF TERROR. The U.

S Supreme Court decided at the end of his 2003-2004 term that U. S courts have jurisdiction to hear challenge on account of almost 550 persons detained in Guantanamo in connection with the war against terrorism. On June 12 2008, the Supreme Court ruled in Bourmediene v. Bush that Guantanamo captive were authorized to access the U. S justice system. Justice Anthony M. Kennedy for the court’s liberal justice writes the majority opinion. He wrote: “The laws and Constitution are designed to survive, and remain in force, in extraordinary times”. President William H. Neukom said in a tatement that the ruling “helps restore the credibility of the United States as a leading advocate and model for the rule of law across the globe. ” “Habeas corpus is the cornerstone of the rule of law in the United States,” he said. “Adhering to this fundamental tenet of our legal system will simply require that we provide a fair process for determining which detainees should continue to be detained. ” (http://www. abajournal. com) Kennedy majority ruling found that habeas corpus rights apply to the detainee and that the government has not shown an appropriate deputy.

The minority opinion with Chief Justice John Roberts as the leader, called the CSR Tribunals the most generous set of procedural protections ever afforded aliens detained by this country as enemy combatants. He was joined in the dissent opinion by Samuel Alito, Clarence Thomas and Antonin Scalia. The Supreme Court brought an end to this issue by giving justice to the men held at Guantanamo naval bay. It gave them the writ of habeas corpus, the Supreme Court recognizes how important those laws established hundreds of years ago by the framers are essential to American natural law.

RUNNING AHEAD: RIGHT OF HABEAS CORPUS ON WAR OF TERRROR Writ of habeas corpus is a judicial mandate to a prison official giving an order that an intrinsic is brought to the court so that he can be determinate if whether or not he/she is imprison unlawfully and determined if he/she should be release or remain in custody. The president as the commander in chief has a responsibility to protect the American people. Most of the time those who are quality as enemy combative aren’t American citizens so, removing them from their countries should be to face justice. They should be punish by an international court if found guilty.

Congress should be watching for the security of the country as well, it should make sure that civil right and liberties are protected and respected. It should make sure that no one goes against our constitution. They should be responsible to determine the guilt or innocence of individual on trials. The Supreme Court responsibility is to determine and protect civil liberties of all individuals as well as to assist in defending national security and make sure that other branches of the government do not overuse their power to go against constitution or use constitution for their personal interest.

National security shouldn’t come at the expense of civil liberties, but they should be united in the sense that individuals are granted their civil liberties in order to better obtain the aspects of national security. There is no reason to weaken one aspect of our constitution and civil liberties to strengthen the other. In conclusion, habeas corpus refers to the right of a person to question his/her incarceration before a judge. The paper was about habeas corpus and the war on terror. Habeas corpus is a concept that has it origin in England and was later on adopted by U.

S. During his RUNNING AHEAD: THE RIGHT OF HABEAS CORPUS ON WAR OF TERROR. evolution, this right has been suspended many times first by president Lincoln during the civil war then, by president bush after the terrorists attacks of 9/11. Both president actions were considerated unconstitutional by some critic. Some justice believed that president Bush action was wrong while other agree with him and later on the Supreme Court based on the constitution and the civil liberties gave the right of habeas corpus to the persons detained in Guantanamo bay naval in Cuba.

Personally I think the people detained in prison are not the real pillars of the terrorism. In matter of facts e face terrorist attack everyday around the word. It is just hard to say if this war on terror will end one day because most of them are based on politic reason, but it is sad to see how many innocent people die every around the world. The people who are not even concern by politic. Habeas corpus in the cornerstone of American constitution that why the supreme court give that right to those detainee to maintain the American status which is known as the country of freedom and of respect of civil liberties.

RUNNING AHEAD: RIGHT OF HABEAS CORPUS ON WAR TERROR References Suspension of Habeas Corpus from http://ir. lawnet. fordham. edu Habeas Corpus in Times of Emergency: A Historical and Comparative View retrieved from http://digitalcommons. pace. edu/cgi/viewcontent. cgi? article=1011&context=pilronline& Supreme Court Rules Guantanamo Detainees Have Habeas Rights retrieved from http://www. abajournal. com/news/article/supreme_court_rules_guantanamo_detaine

Benefits of Using Enterprise Systems

Describe at least two benefits of using enterprise systems. More and more organizations are seeking to integrate the core functions of their business with technological advances. Enterprise systems facilitate this integration process through a single software architecture that links all aspects of business to function as one unit. Enterprise systems also commonly known as ES are comprehensive, large scale application-software packages, which use powers of present day information technology (IT) for supporting processes, reporting, data analysis and information flows.

These IT powers include data storage, computational, and data transmission and are done between and within complex organizations. Enterprise systems can be briefly called as packaged enterprise application software (PEAS) systems and is a perfect combination of adjectives, like “enterprise”, “packaged”, and “application”. Enterprise system is a broad term and includes Enterprise resource planning (ERP), Supply Chain Management (SCM) and Customer Relationship Management (CRM).

Enterprise systems are usually built on, software platforms like Oracle’s Fusion and SAP Net Weaver and is typically, a relational database. There are many benefits of employing an enterprise system in an organization. The two benefits of using ES systems are; Operational Benefits Organizations implement enterprise systems with the purpose of synchronizing the functions of different departments. An integrated system reduces the time used in processing documents, such as payrolls and other external documents.

Information visibility and transparency within an organization is a benefit that facilitates the different operations carried out by the various departments. Operation Bene? ts arise when the use of an ES strengthens an organization in terms of Focus, cohesion, learning and execution of its chosen strategies. observations of 43 successful US corporations suggest that IT is often used to help build integrated processes, improve employee communication, foster the development of a ‘common vision’ and user empowerment, support customer services and facilitate a flatting of organizational and operational structure.

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IT can assist in operational learning by virtue of the following: it is economical for generalizing from single to multiple settings; it is usable by others than its creators; it is informative about the general characteristics of the setting; and it can be validated by objective knowledge and objective processes that go beyond the information processing capacities of any given individual. In addition, IT applications can play an active role in accelerating the evolution of the organizational context, resulting in a shift in operational culture.

As a standardized resource widely available through the organization, IT transforms resources into capability and eventually into core capabilities. IT tools, accumulated information and application knowledge are key factors that facilitate learning behavior IT operation benefit were also identi? ed by Farbey when consolidating past research ? nding on IT bene? t. Operational bene? ts appear in employees’development of a shared vision for the future of the organization and in better communication between people, which in turn improves mutual understanding.

Also, through the integrated decision-making process, consensus may readily be created for subsequent actions. Managerial Benefits Managers find it less hectic to oversee operations and to ensure that key business objectives are achieved through enterprise systems. Because they are able to access information from a centralized server. In my point of view managers will find that the decision-making process becomes more informed and yields better results for over all accountability.

An enterprise system is a system that is used to keep business running smoothly and sufficiently. An enterprise system can help not only a business run smoothly but it can also help to keep customers happy, by making customer deliveries on time and getting them the right product. From what I learned in the book an enterprise system really contributes information of what’s going on in the business so that a business can be run smoothly.

Orders can be shipped on time, helps with the replenishment of goods; all so that business can run smoother and customers can remain happy with the supplier’s product. According to the book some of the challenges are that employees may need to learn how to perform a new set of activities and understand how the information they enter into the system can affect all the others. These systems help create a more uniform organization in which everyone uses similar processes and information, and measures their work in terms of operation performance standards.

The coordination of the firm’s key business processes allows the firm to respond more rapidly to customer demands. In Conclusion Both the Operational benefits and the Managerial Benefits are major factors in use with IT and IS corporations around the world today. The ever growing demand is making it a more technological world than the past 25 years Fast program packages in ES in conjunction with faster computers will bring and dynamic new frontier to future business and how they are operated.

Essay on Trifles

Differences Between Men and Women Trifles revolves around a crime scene. Throughout the play we notice how different men and women, from what they say, to where they are, to what they notice, and to how they are viewed. During the 1900’s women were viewed as objects or the property of men. They were taken for granted and did was not appreciated. They were treated as less than men and they had no power to defend themselves.

During the play we notice that the women are in the kitchen and they barely move or go out of the place while the men do whatever they want. This represents the weak position of the females in the society, and how they are expected to behave. When the women find evidence to the crime while paying attention to the little things that men would not notice, they were laughed at and not taken seriously. They wonder if she was going to quilt it or just knot it. (The men laugh, the women look abashed”). According to Lizbeth Goodman “Trifles was written at the end of the American suffrage movement, but is not itself a ‘suffrage play’, in that is not overtly concerned with women’s right to vote. The play and Glaspell’s choice of themes, issues and style can, however, be seen to have influenced in part by the dramatic developments of the suffrage era.

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They play deals with the major theme of communication between the sexes; it asks the audience to recognize women’s and men’s different expectations; different rights and different ways of supporting each other, both within and outside the law. ” We can clearly see how the women help each other and unite as one against the men to create more power for themselves against male prejudice when they defend Minnie, when they hide the canary’s dead body which is the evidence of the murder, and every time the men try to judge Mrs.

Wright the women move closer together to appear as one strong unit that men can not break “The women have come in slowly and stand close together near the door”. The men, on the other hand, believe that the women are powerless and shallow and they really underestimate the women’s abilities and bond. When the men find no evidence and the women revealed the truth, the men make fun of the women again “(Facetiously). Well, Henry, at least we found out that she was not going to quilt it.

She was going to–what is it you call it, ladies! ” In conclusion, the play Trifles shows the difference between men and women during the 20th century and how women’s opinions did not matter. But Susan Glaspell proved, through this play and the behavioural differences between the two sexes, that women can do important things and are no less than men. Bibliography Literature and Gender. Ed. Lizbeth Goodman. London, New York and Canada: The Open University, 1996.

True Effects of Medical Marijuana

Medical marijuana should be legalized because it can relieve pain, as in, nausea, vomiting, and other symptoms caused by such illnesses as multiple sclerosis, cancer and AIDS, it is less toxic than most drugs that physicians prescribe to patients every day. The Pain Management of America said “There are few things more frightening in life than receiving a cancer diagnosis.

Fortunately for cancer patients, medical marijuana may be an effective cancer treatment and an alternative to many drugs currently used to treat cancers including breast cancer, cervical cancer, colorectal cancer, brain cancer, leukemia, lung cancer, prostate cancer, and more. Medical marijuana can also help to alleviate symptoms associated with traditional cancer treatment, including nausea and vomiting. ” On top of relieving pain, it also makes you hungry, which can be very helpful to people with cancer having a hard time keeping food down, or eating food in the first place.

However, smoking Marijuana can be detrimental to your lungs “. Yet medical marijuana is not used for smoking alone, the THC is extracted from it and it can be made into a pill form, so your risk of getting cancer is much less, but by smoking it, not only could you hurt yourself, but you could hurt others around you (second hand smoke). Marijuana has use as medicine in the hands of trained physicians. It does not have a place in the hands of children, teens or so called “recreational” users any more than any other medication does. Marijuana has many positive effects, and little negative ones.

Tobacco and Alcohol are legal, yet have no medical purposes, and can only harm the user. Marijuana on the other hand can actually be beneficial. Then, you might ask, why is it illegal!? Many people think that Marijuana was made illegal because in its hearing, it was determined to be harmful, but in fact, it’s quite the opposite. In fact, Guither, P. says “Many people assume that marijuana was made illegal through some kind of process involving scientific, medical, and government hearings; that it was to protect the citizens from what was determined to be a dangerous drug.

The actual story shows a much different picture. Those who voted on the legal fate of this plant never had the facts, but were dependent on information supplied by those who had a specific agenda to deceive lawmakers. You’ll see that the very first federal vote to prohibit marijuana was based entirely on a documented lie on the floor of the Senate”. For a long part of human history, marijuana has been completely legal. The marijuana plant, of course, has a large number of uses.

The earliest known fabric was apparently of hemp(Marijuana), and over the centuries the plant was used for food, incense, cloth, rope, and much more. “This adds to some of the confusion over its introduction in the United States, as the plant was well known from the early 1600? s, but did not reach public awareness as a recreational drug until the early 1900? s. ” (Guither, P). The reason it was made illegal, was because the media had perverted the way marijuana was seen. Many newspapers had quotes like “ …the primary reason to outlaw marijuana is its effect on the degenerate races. “Marijuana is an addictive drug which produces in its users insanity, criminality, and death. ” “Marijuana leads to pacifism and communist brainwashing” “You smoke a joint and you’re likely to kill your brother. ” “Marijuana is the most violence-causing drug in the history of mankind. ” (actual quotes). Once people had gotten the idea that marijuana alone could alter your consciousness enough to manipulate you to kill people, it was only a short time before it was made illegal. “We have suggested that the substance be reclassified so that better research can be done on it,” Phinney said. So we can find out what the real benefits and risks are and what the appropriate doses might be” Sharon Bernstein. Now we have the scientific evidence that proves that marijuana not only has benefits, but so many benefits it would be perverse to let it remain illegal for medical purposes. Research and evidence shows, however, that there are some conditions for which medical marijuana may be the most effective treatment. Someone that has AIDS can benefit from medical marijuana, because when you have aids, your appetite decreases significantly, and weight loss can occur.

When given medical marijuana, studies show that AIDS patients had an increase in appetite, and it helped them with their severe weight loss. Some people have neurological disorders (Spinal cord injury and multiple sclerosis). When given medical marijuana, it reduces the pain and unusual tightness resulting from nerve damage. Cannabinoids seem to be more effective than opiates in treating long-term, chronic pain, inflammatory pains and diseases. Dr. Robert Melamede said “The active compounds in marijuana are similar to a class of molecules in our bodies called endocannabinoids.

Both bind to receptors in the brain and throughout the body called cannabinoid receptors. This system influences our immune system, protects nerve cells from premature death, and influences mood, memory, appetite, sleep and movement. Endocannabinoids regulate every one of the systems in our bodies. ” Arthritis patients have been helped tremendously by medical marijuana, because it suppresses the immune system and results in less pain and information. Glaucoma patients, when given medical marijuana, have reduced the swelling and pressure felt in the eyes.

Marijuana can be harmful to the lungs, heres what Morgan, J said in his book “Exposing Marijuana Myths” “Except for their psychoactive ingredients, marijuana and tobacco smoke are nearly identical. Because most marijuana smokers inhale more deeply and hold the smoke in their lungs, more dangerous material may be consumed per cigarette. However, it is the total volume of irritant inhalation – not the amount in each cigarette – that matters. Most tobacco smokers consume more than 10 cigarettes per day and some consume 40 or more. Regular marijuana smokers seldom consume more than three to five cigarettes per day and most consume far fewer.

Thus, the amount of irritant material inhaled almost never approaches that of tobacco users. Frequent marijuana smokers experience adverse respiratory symptoms from smoking, including chronic cough, chronic phlegm, and wheezing. However, the only prospective clinical study shows no increased risk of crippling pulmonary disease (chronic bronchitis and emphysema). Since 1982, UCLA researchers have evaluated pulmonary function and bronchial cell characteristics in marijuana-only smokers, tobacco-only smokers, smokers of both, and non-smokers.

Although they have found changes in marijuana-only smokers, the changes are much less pronounced than those found in tobacco smokers. The nature of the marijuana-induced changes were also different, occurring primarily in the lung’s large airways – not the small peripheral airways affected by tobacco smoke. Since it is small-airway inflammation that causes chronic bronchitis and emphysema, marijuana smokers may not develop these diseases. ”. But in the hands of a medical professional, they can use ventilators, pills, and sprays of extracts of marijuana, that are not detrimental to your health.

And nobody has ever over-dosed on marijuana, especially when given by a doctor. Studies have even shown that Marijuana is not addictive, Dr. William Notcutt said, “ The prediction was that we would not see any evidence of dependency or addiction, and this has in fact proved the case. Over one thousand patients have been through clinical trials in the UK and no evidence of dependency has occurred, we have got patients now that have been using Sativex (marijuana extract) for over the last five and a half years and not one of them has increased the dose.

Many of them have reduced the dose of the drug, and many have reduced the dose of other drugs such as morphine. A further thing that we’ve observed on many occasions, is that patients have had to stop using Sativex for one reason or another, such as they had to have surgery, or wanted to stop for a holiday or something like that, and we’ve found that when they stop using the drug, they have not had any withdrawal symptoms, the symptoms are an indicator that someone is dependant on the drug, and we haven’t seen any symptoms of withdrawal when someone has suddenly stopped using cannabis. Medical Marijuana has been proved through the scientific evidence to be a worthy contender for a legal medicine. It can help people with Cancer, Glaucoma, Aids, and other diseases. It is non-addictive, with no withdrawal effects, like many other drugs that are already legal. There is no reason we shouldn’t legalize this drug, and it should have been legal long before now. Thankfully, doctors in America and the UK have performed many experiments to give us this scientific evidence so that we can see for ourselves the benefits of medical marijuana.

Graphical User Interface

Week 3 Course Project (BIS450) Topic: Interface and Processing Required User interface: The user interface shall be built to provide an easy-to-use graphical interface that includes dropdown menu, labels, summit button, icons, pull-down menus, buttons, and hyperlinks. It also should adhere to commonly accepted user interface guidelines on windowing systems. For instance a button should perform like a button and not like a checkbox. Buttons will be used for single independent actions that are relevant to the current screen.

Text fields (label) will be used when the user may type in anything they want. Database Requirement: GisiCon is a small and a growing company and as such I will be going for the minimum server database requirement. MySQL server has been chosen for this specific website design. The choice of MySQL as the database platform has many advantage, some of them are: * Low-cost: Microsoft MySQL Server features and maintenance remain low throughout an application’s life cycle. * Cross Platform Flexibility: MySQL supports multiple platforms of operating system. High Performance, Reliability and Scalability: Supports demanding applications, such as Telco and Network management * Ease-of-Use with fast installation: Easy configuration and integration, give developers enough time to focus on application development. * Zero-administration: It eliminates the need for customers to hire a dedicated DBA or spend any cycles on database administration, and reducing or eliminating costly database-related support. Navigation structure:

The following principle should be used for page navigation: * Navigation will be very easy to find: It will stand out enough so that it does get lost with other content of the website. * Consistency: All the navigation will appear in the same location on every page of the site * Obvious name will be used: Navigation link will clearly state what lies behind them * It should remind the User Where They Are: Once a user clicks into a site section, it’s a good idea to remind them where they are. Website IPO: User Input /Information User Input /Information User Output/ Information

User Output/ Information Database for User profile/ Storage and processing Database for User profile/ Storage and processing Data Collection Data Collection Input| User inputs request to the system; service request, name or address update| Data Collection| Data is collected by the system at this phase| Database| The database uses the various validating technique to validate the inputted information with the information that is already in the system| Output| Output is presented to the user in form of intelligent information| Data Storage Structure in the Database

Databases will be using a series of Tables to store the data. Each database table will be given a unique name. Next, each column in the table will be given a unique name. In our example below it would be something like first_name, last_name and email. First_Name| Last_Name| Email| Address| Emmanuel| Akpan| [email protected] com| 120 Pinehill Road, Calgary, Alberta| Validation/ Main processing routine on the system:

Most of the validation will be happening in the Server. However, the User Interactivity Screens and Forms will be used as the primary validation point by the users. The application will require the user to enter data into the user interface. This information will be moved to the database for validation. When validation is completed the result will be presented to the user on the user interface. References http://www. mysql. com/oem/