Sociology

Question 1.
Karl Marx, like Gilman and Du Bois was interested in seeing society change. Karl Marx was interested in seeing a classless society in which capitalism was abolished. Karl Marx saw the world with a materialist view and the first “to develop the structural method, without which there could be no social theory…”(Lemert 2007; pp 49). Through this, Marx was able to to structurally analyze the world he was living in; a world in capitalism was beginning to flourish. He saw society on a macro level, which meant he saw society as a whole. Since Marx longed for a classless society, he first analyzed the current situation he was in. He concluded that capitalism was inherently exploitive since it alienates workers from their labor and the goods they produce (the workers have no say in their workplace and do not own what they produce). His materialist view of the world is apparent in the Communist Manifesto in which he says that class conflict is what makes history, that is, real events instead of ideas like the idealist view.
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Technology Essay

Over the past decade, technology in our society has become a more noticeable aspect of our everyday lives. One may think back to the days where there were no cell phones, online messaging, or even emails, and realize the extent to which technology has advanced. These rapid advancements in technology have provided a platform for unimaginable human outcomes that no one could have predicted. The increase in technology is not only evident in social interactions, but also in academic environments.

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Inflation and United States Economy

Economics is often called the “science of decision making.” The decisions that economists analyze range from personal decisions such as how big a pizza to order or whether to buy or lease a new car to the decisions the federal government makes about things like the size of our military. Economists use information about these, and other decisions, to develop indicators that can be used to determine the health of our economy. Just as a physician relies on indicators such as temperature, blood pressure and heart rate to determine the health of a patient, economists use indicators like gross domestic product growth, the unemployment rate and the rate of inflation to predict our nation’s economic health. How do economists make their forecasts about the United States economy? In this lesson you will use the Web to retrieve up-to-date key economic statistics which will provide valuable hints about the state of the future economy. When the lesson is complete, you will have a new or better understanding of how economists predict our economic future. Pretend you are a partner in an economic forecasting firm called Acme Economic Forecasters (AEF). You and your partners have just received a letter from a business woman in Australia who is interested in moving her guava jelly business to the United States. She has asked you to prepare a report on the expected economic health of the United States economy for the next year. You and your AEF partners will need to do the following:
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The Role of Conflict in the Health Care Environment

TUI UNIVERSITY Module 4 Case Assignment BHS328 Core Professor: Dr. 7 March 2011 This paper will assess the role of conflict in the health care environment. As with any work place, the health care environment is no different. It has its ups and downs as well as it’s good times and bad times. Whenever you have people working together especially in a high stress environment like a hospital you are going to have conflict, now how you handle that stress/ conflict is the big question. According to Pawar, M. (2007, May) behaviors such as blame, accusation and finger-pointing rise up you need to deal with them in the following manner.

It requires the development of three core competencies: These competencies are: 1. Develop a process focus. 2. Ensure alignment of purpose. 3. Foster effective communication. In developing a process focus we all have internal “maps,” or filters, through which we interpret what we observe in the world. Based on past experiences, values, philosophies and cultures, these maps lead to assumptions and inferences that may or may not be accurate but drive our reactions, behaviors, thinking and decision making. Pawar, M. (2007, May) Just like Pawar, M. states in his paper we should not ask, “who did it”?

When something goes wrong, we should ask, “What part of the process allowed this to happen? ” We should also ask our selves”How can I learn from this? ” not “How can I protect myself and save face? ” Next we ensure alignment of purpose. With this I believe it falls into the category of miscommunication. Communication is one of if not the most important part of successes when dealing with a small to large amount of people, if you have 10 over even 100 people working on a single project and they are not in constant communication with each other than will most likely be doing double the work.

You must out line the groups purpose. You must see how the group’s interests tie into their own interests, they are more likely to be committed to what the group is trying to achieve. In addition, when individuals hear one another’s interests, values and goals, they are more likely to be understanding and supportive of one another, which helps eliminate blame Pawar, M. (2007, May). Lastly we must foster effective communication. Pawar has some very smart ideas on the best way to do this. A crisis of communication often exists in cultures where blame is observed.

The key drivers of poor communication are biased assumptions, which cause individuals to speak before they think and to dismiss one another’s ideas or comments without really listening to them. Suspending assumptions is critical to effective communication. It involves examining your own biases and considering whether they are incomplete before you react or respond. This conveys a respect for others and results in better decision making. Inconclution this paper brifly covered how to assess the role of conflict in the health care environment, and the 3 main ways you can overcome them. References:

Wk 2 Comprehensive Problem 41 (Ch.4) Acc-547

41. Demarco and Janine Jackson have been married for 20 years and have four children who qualify as their dependents. Their income from all sources this year (2009) totaled $200,000 and included a gain from the sale of their home, which they purchased a few years ago for $200,000 and sold this year for $250,000. The gain on the sale qualified for the exclusion from the sale of a principal residence. The Jacksons incurred $16,500 of itemized deductions. a. What is the Jackson’s taxable income? 111,600 realized income $200,000 minus excluded income$ 50,000 (gain from sale of house) gross income$150,000 minus for AGI deductions $ 0 Adjusted gross income $150,000 minus itemized deductions $ 16,500(larger than standard deduction) subtotal $133,500 minus exemptions $ 21,900 (personal & dependency) Taxable income$111,600 b. What would their taxable income be if their itemized deductions totaled $6,000 instead of $16,500? 116,700 AGI$150,000 minus standard deduction$ 11,400 (married filing jointly) subtotal$138,600 minus exemptions$ 21,900 (personal & dependency) Taxable income$116,700 c. What would their taxable income be if they had $0 itemized deductions and $6,000 of for AGI deductions? $110,700 Gross income$150,000 minus for AGI deductions$ 6,000 AGI$144,000 minus standard deduction$ 11,400 subtotal$132,600 minus exemptions$ 21,900 (personal & dependency) Taxable income$110,700 d.

Assume the original facts except that they also incurred a loss of $5,000 on the sale of some of their investment assets. What effect does the $5,000 loss have on their taxable income? $108,600 They would be only able to deduct $3,000 of the loss on their 2009 return, but could carryover the leftover $2,000 of the loss to the next year. So their taxable income for 2009 would be $108,600 ($111,600 – $3,000). e. Assume the original facts except that the Jacksons owned investments that appreciated by $10,000 during the year.

The Jacksons believe the investments will continue to appreciate, so they did not sell the investments during this year. What is the Jackson’s taxable income? $111,600 Their taxable income would be $111,600, the same as in (a). This is because they will not recognize the gain any gain until they sell the investments. When they do sell their investments then they will recognize any gain or loss on the sale of those investments, which will increase (if a gain) or decrease (if a loss) their gross income and have the same affect on their taxable income.

Emotional Intelligence Essay

In my emotional intelligence test there were four sections. The sections were self-awareness, self-management, social awareness, and relationship management. The areas listed are crucial to success in all areas of out lives. The areas that I did poorly in I need to make improvements, as quickly as I possibly can. Other areas that I scored well in I could also look for ways to become better. In the self-awareness section I came in a little short with a quite low five. (2013. http://www. aetrix. com. au/meit/eitest. html) I feel that this is more than likely accurate. I often times second guess my gut feeling and worry if the choice that I am making is the right one for me, my family, and our futures. I also feel that this is a common feeling among people. We always want what is best for everyone, but always question is what we think is best, is actually best! In the self-management section I scored well with an eight. (2013. http://www. maetrix. com. au/meit/eitest. tml) I know that things in my life must be managed well, such as, time, getting things accomplished, and so on. If I miss a deadline or if I am late to anything, it truly bothers me. I was late one time during my four years of high school due to a train stalled on the tracks. Everyday after that I drove ten minutes out of my way just to avoid those tracks and being late again. In the social awareness section a scored well with an eight. (2013. http://www. maetrix. com. au/meit/eitest. html).

I am very pleased with score/ I feel that I do like to know my social surroundings, the feelings of the ones near me, and strive to be a positive point in their day. You never ever know what someone next to you is going through. I work as a small engine mechanic and co-owner of a small tire shop in our town. We get people of all kinds, in all kinds of moods. Just asking “How can I help you? ” sets some of them off. I never say anything out of the way back to them just because I do not know how their day started and what events it has consisted of.

And finally, in the relationship awareness section, I scored the highest of all the sections with a nine (2013. http://www. maetrix. com. au/meit/eitest. html). I am a little surprised by this being my strongest category. I am, in my opinion, meek and not so much a “manager” in any relationship that I have. In my personal relationships among my husband, family, and friends, I feel that relationship management is a two way street. Not just one person can manage it all.

In professional relationships I feel more like the boss is the one calling the shots, not so much me or my co-workers. . The only person holding me back from anything is me! I hope that the results of going to school sink in, I retain the knowledge set forth by the instructors and that I can excel from learning in weak areas and making improvements to the already strong areas. I want my family to benefit from me achieving all that I set out to do. I want my son to see me strive for excellence and mimic that!

Nike Position Paper

The Nike Corporation Over the years, the topic of how the Nike Corporation treats their workers and employees has become quite the controversial issue. Many people who buy Nike products do not know where their products have been and who has made them in the first place. On the other hand, many people have decided to boycott the Nike Corporation as a result of finding out how the products were made. My position on the topic would be to boycott Nike products until the way their employees are treated and work environments are corrected and improved.

Nike employees are forced to work in harsh and hazardous working spaces with little medical treatment provided when needed. There are many reports that employees do not have gloves, masks or any other protective gear when dealing with harsh chemicals in Nike factories. Along with health hazards, there are also many counts of verbal and physical abuse that are stowed upon lesser employees from those in higher positions.

One worker at the Taiwanese-operated Pou Chen plant in Sukabumi said a supervisor kicked her last year after making a mistake while cutting rubber for soles. Others have said that they have been called “pigs, dogs, and monkey’s”. Things like sick leaves, or any excuses that result in missing work usually lead to being fired on the spot. Another big issue that has been brought up in this topic is children working in the factories and being exposed to the same hazards that the adults are being exposed to.

Distracted Driving

Persuasive Essay- Distracted Driving On October 26th 2009, Ontario’s ban on the use of handheld devices while driving took effect. Since then, thousands of drivers in Ontario have broken this law. This causes major issues because, 1) Using handheld devices while driving can cause many road accidents, 2) Many people don’t seem to be taking this important law seriously, and 3) It puts everyone in our society in serious, life threatening danger. I think that the province of Ontario can solve these problems by, improving the current law on handheld device use while driving, and being more disciplinary to distracted drivers.

Distracted driving is a very serious issue in our world today. A large number of the accidents that happen on the road are related to the use of a handheld device while driving. In fact, drivers who use cell phones are four times more likely to be in a collision, than drivers who are focused on the road. In 2010, the Canadian Automobile Association (CAA) ranked distracted driving, as the no. 1 concern on the road. But still, many people continue to disregard the facts. Handheld device use while driving has also caused many injuries and fatalities.

Not only in the drivers at fault, but also in innocent pedestrians. “Drivers distracted by handheld devices killed an estimated 16,000 people from 2001 to 2007,” U. S. researchers report. The numbers are said to increase in future years because of the continuing invention of wireless technology. This shows that if distracted driving numbers increase, the death rate due to cell phone related accidents, will also increase drastically. Even though the province of Ontario has seen and acted on this growing problem, it doesn’t seem to be getting through to some drivers.

On February 1st 2010, Ontario’s Provincial Police (OPP) began to give out $155 fines, to anyone caught using a handheld device while driving. Since the law was implemented, about 49,000 drivers in Ontario were caught breaking the law. By improving the current law on handheld device use while driving, the government will be solving all of these major problems. They can improve the law by also making the local police in the cities of Ontario issue fines to people caught using a handheld device while driving, forget the warnings and go straight to punishment, and make sure everyone is fully informed on the effects of distracted driving.

This will ensure that the law is taken seriously by the citizens of Ontario. However, we too play a part in this situation. We as citizens can help stop these major problems caused by distracted driving, from happening. By becoming aware, informing others, using hands free devices instead of handheld, and by spreading the word about the effects of distracted driving, we can accomplish this. We can help save ourselves, friends, family, and millions of others from being killed by handheld device related accidents.

We can all make a difference just by remembering to keep our “Eyes on the Road, Hands on the Wheel. ” www. mto. gov. on. ca/english/safety/distracted-driving www. petroliatopic. com- article on distracted driving in Canada www. tech2. in. com/news/mobile-phones/talking-to-death-texts-phones-kill www. toronto. ctv. ca/servlet/an/local/CTVNews/20110201/cell-phone-ban Distracted driving quote from: www. mto. gov. on. ca/english/safety/distracted-driving

Public Policy Making

The government has a duty to its people to solve the problems that occur in our society, and the courses of actions used to solve these problems are known as public policy. Public Policy can be described as a process that includes seven different steps. These seven steps are used to then tackle domestic problems in our country such as health care, education, and the environment. The first step in the policy-making process is problem recognition.

For there to be a policy, there must first be a problem or issue troubling the public that causes them to seek the help of government officials. The controversy in all of this is that, the definition or interpretation of a problem tends to differ among people which may affect the course of action used to solve those problems. One example would be the current debate on gay marriage. Currently, the court is debating whether or not marriage is a union between a man and a woman in a states rights point of view, yet we have DOMA, a federal law.

How the Supreme Court handles this will affect the course of action used in shaping public policy on marriage. The second step in the policy-making process is agenda setting. Once something has been viewed as a problem, it must be put on an agenda; or set of issues to be given attention by public officials. Now, just because something has been viewed as a problem doesn’t mean that it will make it to an agenda. People or things must bring certain problems to public attention to be discussed.

Mostly problems that appeal strongly to the general public or politicians make it to agendas, and the most notable agenda setters include the president, interest groups, politicians, and crises. One example of agenda setting would be an anti-assault weapons group protesting to representatives and senators as a result of the Sandy Hook murders. The next step of the process is policy formulation. Once problems make it to agendas, courses of action must be formulated to resolve them.

Historically, policy formulation has taken on three forms which include routine formulation,(changing existing policies)analogous formulation,(looking to past policies for reference) and creative formulation,(making new policies. Groups such as presidential aides or other officials work to formulate policies. An example would be the foreign affairs committee in the house working to find a way to negotiate with hostile North Korea. After a policy is formulated, it must be adopted once officials deem it the safest and most practical way to solve the problem.

Usually policy adoption comes in the form of legislation passed in Congress. But due to the many “intricacies” of politics, policies must sometimes be altered or watered down in order to appeal to all the ideologies represented in Congress. Compromise may often take the form of ambiguity as in the vague language of the Clean Air action which gave obscure instructions as to how we should regulate air quality standards in the U. S Once a policy is adopted, money must be allocated to ensure that the policy functions properly through budgeting.

The money used to fund policies comes from federal tax dollars and how well a policy is funded affects how well it works. For example, the Department of housing is only able to rent subsidies to only about twenty percent of qualified families due to poor funding. Once a budget gets approved, the policy must be implemented. Implementation may be challenging because at this point in the process, a solution has been made however now it must be applied to all people on the local, state and federal levels. One example includes when the Supreme Court decided in Brown v.

Board of ed. that separate was not equal and that schools must be desegregated. This wasn’t properly implemented or enforced until three years later when Eisenhower sent troops to Arkansas to help settle African Americans into an all white school. Lastly, there is policy evaluation. Once a policy is implemented, it must be checked to ensure that it is working properly. Policy evaluation can be done many groups or people including Congressional committees, presidential committees, courts, university researchers, etc.

Policy evaluation can either be used to improve a policy by offering ways to make it better, or completely strike it down due to failure to succeed. An example would be when the Airline Deregulation Act of 1978 eliminated the Civil Aeronautics Board, because another more effective solution was found to protect the interests of airline users. These seven steps are crucial components in the public policy-making process. These steps are continually used to ensure that the government does its job in protecting the people and hearing them out whenever there is an issue.

Mrs Deveane Atkinson

Journal Article Review Deveane Atkinson Chamberlain College of Nursing NR 305 Professor Joni Knapp 2013 Journal Article Review Introduction The article by Lloyd, H. , & Craig, S. (2007). A guide to taking a patient’s history, appearing in volume 22, issue 13 of the journal Nursing Standard in 2007 explains certain process, approach and procedure in obtaining patients history, emphasizing on the importance of information order collection. This article also expounding on the triage process uses general and non-specific gender, race, or population criteria to obtain the assessment information to treat patients.

I plan on summarizing the pros and cons of this article while explaining the author’s process of taking a patients history. In conclusion, incorporating the history taking process using viewpoints of others, while showing key factors that have been excluded. Summary of Article The authors focused on assessment, communication and gathering information on history while providing an adequate environment to facilitating appropriate care. Preparing the environment is also another key aspect covered in the article noting that the practitioner may practice in many different areas and or may encounter the patient in not so desired places.

With all the environmental challenges the authors imply that it is still the practitioner’s duty in the “maintenance of privacy and dignity; the environment should be private, quiet and ideally there should be no interruptions” (Lloyd, H. , & Craig. S. 2007). The authors placed increased importance and awareness on the environment that they cited “when interruptions is not possible the nurse should do everything possible to ensure that patient confidentiality is maintained” (Crouch & Meurier, 2005).

The possibility of interruptions and being overheard can discourage or prevent patients from telling their story (Clark, 1999). Also, Lloyd & Craig (2007) noted from (Rogers, 1951) respecting the patient as an individual and this includes considering beliefs, values and the ability to remain non-judgmental and professional. Lloyd & Craig (2007), noted the importance of the nurse possessing good communication skills in order to gather information in a systematic, sensitive and professional manner is essential.

Also other authors who support the theory “To underpin a structured systematic history-taking approach in consultations, specific clinical skills are fundamental, including comprehensive clinical knowledge relating to a wide variety of clinical conditions, pharmacological aspects and diagnostic skills” (Young, K. , Duggan, L. , & Franklin, P. , 2009). After introduction of self to the patient the authors believe letting the patient tell their story in their own words while using active listening skills while not appearing rushed, or using technical terms or jargon and paraphrasing the patients when possible.

The authors uses example of non-verbal and verbal communication. The author’s support “the most important aspect of patient assessment is in the taking of patient history” Lloyd & Craig (2007). This allows the patient the opportunity to give the practitioner information and insight on what the patient is having a problem with from the patient own view point. Obtaining the history on patient’s envelopes a trifold approach many different theorists explain their belief.

As noted “a consultation is a private and intimate interaction between clinician and patient. It assists in the diagnosis of health problems in clinical settings and has traditionally been the domain of medical practitioners” (Kaufman, G. , 2008). “This article provides the reader with a framework in which to take a full and comprehensive history from patients” Lloyd & Craig (2007). The authors pointed out the importance of collecting informed consent in various different methods before any intervention, including history taking is done.

When collecting and obtaining history the authors geared towards using open ended strategy questions while interviewing the patient this tool will enable the nurse to obtain more information. Closed ended questions can enable the nurse to gather more information along with the patient story. At the end of the interview it is advised that the nurse clarify the information with the patient before proceeding. Lloyd & Craig (2007) discussed the use of the Calgary Cambridge framework for obtaining patient history.

The Calgary Cambridge framework uses five stages of explanation, planning, aiding accurate recall achieving, and shared understanding, planning, and closed consultation. This health assessment tool guides the nurse in asking specific questions pertaining to specific symptoms in each body system. Evaluation of the Article This article covered a broad scope being very general, non-specific in patient race, religion, and or sex. The approach used in this article was exceptional and can be used by any facility for dialoging and training.

The authors incorporating mental health history, medication history, family, social, sexual and occupational health history when obtaining a complete patient’s history to ensure all areas of the interviewing process will be covered. The examples of unhelpful interview techniques used in this article will definitely help me because I currently work in an emergency department and participate in training new graduate nurses along with participate in triaging patients as they enter the facility and or at the bedside via an EMS system.

In addition, all hospital that has an Emergency intake facility attached should include a triage certification class that is separate from general orientation. Consultation skills development involves a variety of teaching and learning approaches. “In addition to theory-based sessions the following strategies have been successful in consultation skills development: role- play, recording of real clinical cases, receiving clinical tutor feedback and peer-review processes” (McManus et al, 1993; Macguire & Pitceathly, 2002; Kramer et al, 2004).

All nurses that participate in the triage process should partake in a class that includes but not limited to the systemic approach process presented in this article. I have worked in to many facilities that do not have specific training on the triage process of patient and simply knowing the ethics of approaching certain situation. Some disadvantage with this article were not covering specific population, group, gender or age, sex, also no information was given on how to approach or handle language barriers along with different cultures. Conclusion

Since this article did not expound on different groups it is very general in information being conveyed and can be used as a platform or foundational start to a good triage history taking tool. The article placed information on obtaining patient history in a uniformed format that can be easily read and it is very user friendly with information non polluted with references. The information presented can enable any novice or advance nurse clinician a foundational start to the process of history taking. References Lloyd, H. , & Craig, S. (2007). A guide to taking a patient’s history…

Clinical skills: 28. Nursing Standard, 22(13), 42-48. Crouch, A. , & Meurier, C. (2005). Vital Notes for Nurses: Health Assessment Blackwell Publishing, Oxford. Clark, C. (1999). Taking a history. In Walsh M, Crumbie A, Reveley, S. (n. d. ) Nurse Practitioners: Clinical Skills and Professional Issues. Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford, 12-23. Rogers, C. , (1951). Client Centered Therapy: Its Current Practice, Implications and Theory. Houghton Mifflin, Boston MA. Young, K. , Duggan, L. , & Franklin, P. , (2009). Effective consulting and history-taking skills for prescribing practice.

British Journal Of Nursing, 18(17), 1056-1061. Kaufman, G. (2008). Patient assessment: effective consultation and history taking. Nursing Standard, 23(4), 50-56. McManus, IC. , Vincent, CA. , Thom, S. , & Kidd, J. , (1993). Teaching communication skills to clinical students. BMJ 306: 1322–7. Macguire, P. , & Pitceathly, C. (2002). Key communication skills and how to acquire them. BMJ 325: 697–700. Kramer, AWM. , Dusman, H. , Tan, LHC. , Grol, RPTM. , van der Vleuten, CPM. , (2004). Acquisition of communication skills in postgraduate training for general practice. Med Educ 38: 158–67