Ethnical Studies

(UKM Ethnic Studies Papers)

Kertas Kajian Etnik UKM Bil. 2 (November) 2008
(UKM Ethnic Studies Papers No. 2 [November] 2008)

Many ethnicities, many cultures, one nation:
The Malaysian experience

Shamsul A. B.
[Shamsul Amri Baharuddin]


Cetakan Pertama / First Printing, 2008
Hak cipta / Copyright Penulis / Author
Institut Kajian Etnik (KITA)
Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 2008

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Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia
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Perpustakaan Negara Malaysia Data-Pengkatalogan-dalam-Penerbitan

Shamsul Amri Baharuddin
Many ethnicities, many cultures, one nation: The Malaysian experience /Shamsul Amri Baharuddin
(UKM Ethnic Studies Papers No. 2 [November] 2008)
1. Malaysia??”Ethnic Relations. 2. Diversity ??“ Malaysia.
3. Ethnicity ??“Malaysia. 4. Culture ??“ Malaysia.
5. Nation ??“ Malaysia.

Kertas Kajian Etnik UKM Bil. 1 (November) 2008
(UKM Ethnic Studies Papers No.1 [November] 2008)

Institut Kajian Etnik (KITA)
Institute of Ethnic Studies

Many ethnicities, many cultures, one nation:
The Malaysian experience

Shamsul Amri Baharuddin


Many ethnicities, many cultures, one nation:
The Malaysian experience


Malaysia, since Independence, had been in a state of ???stable tension,??™ which means that we have been living in a society dominated by many contradictions but we have managed to solve most of them through a continuous process of consensus-seeking negotiations, sometimes the process itself became a solution. The negotiations have taken many forms, some officials and others embedded in our daily interactions at marketplace, coffee shops and the like. In recent times, such activities are conducted in the cyber space, through the Internet, blogs and even through the use of mobile phones, especially, and SMSs. This paper argues that Malaysians clearly prefers ???tongue wagging not parang (machete) wielding.??? This simply means that they prefer to talk instead of resorting to violence. The paper presents three instances of how the negotiations take place and the implications for long-term harmonious ethnic relations in Malaysia.

Pelbagai etnisiti, pelbagai budaya, satu bangsa:
Pengalaman Malaysia


Malaysia, semenjak Merdeka, wujud dalam keadaan ???ketegangan yang stabil??™ (stable tension), yang menunjukkan bahawa biar pun selama ini kehidupan dalam masyarakat Malaysia sarat dengan kontradiksi, namun kita mampu menyelesaikan sebahagian besar daripadanya melalui proses perundingan yang bertujuan mencari konsensus, dan kadang-kadang proses itu sendiri menjadi penyelesai. Perundingan itu terdapat dalam pelbagai bentuk, sebahagiannya dilaksana secara rasmi dan selainnya tersirat dalam interaksi seharian di pasar, kedai kopi dan sepertinya. Akhir-akhir ini, kegiatan tersebut berlaku dalam ruang siber, melalui Internet, blogs malah melalui telefon bimbit menggunakan SMS. Kertas ini menghujahkan bahawa orang Malaysia lebih suka ???bertikam lidah daripada berparangan.??™ Ringkasnya, orang Malaysia lebih suka berunding daripada menggunakan kekerasan. Kertas ini membentang tiga contoh perundingan tersebut dan mengupas implikasi janga panjang kegiatan ini terhadap kelestarian hubungan etnik yang harmonis di Malaysia.

Many ethnicities, many cultures, one nation:
The Malaysian experience

Malaysia a nation in the state of ???stable tension??™

It was some 39 years ago, on May 13 of 1969, that an open and bloody ethnic conflict broke out in Kuala Lumpur, the capital of Malaysia. Ethnic violence also occurred in a few other locations but away from Kuala Lumpur. Malaysia at that the time was a plural society created by British colonial economic policies, with a population of 56 percent Malay Muslims, 35 percent Chinese Malaysians, 8 percent Indian Malaysians and one percent Others. These percentages are not much different from the population??™s ethnic composition today. The ethnic diversity is significantly complicated by other form of diversities, namely, cultural, religious, regional, political orientation and economic activity.

Although the conflict was localized and successfully contained, the aftermath was felt throughout the country. It was the severest test of ethnic relations in post-Merdeka (post-Independence) Malaysia. It became a watershed event in the political and sociological analyses of Malaysian society, and in the consciousness of individual Malaysians, because it was so traumatic. It conscientized people and most importantly, it redefined the perceptions of our ethnic relations in our country and changed their dynamics.

Ordinary Malaysians were rudely awakened to the fact that the ethnic harmony that they had enjoyed since Merdeka could not be taken for granted anymore. The government was quick to mobilize all its resources to find immediate remedies and long-term solutions, both economic and political ones.

The government declared a national Emergency, and democracy was suspended. A National Consultative Council was set up to seek solutions palatable to all the ethnic groups, especially the Malays.

The New Economic Policy (NEP) was introduced, in 1971, to address, in short and long-term, the intra- and inter-ethnic socio-economic differences resulting from the complex of diversities in the country ??“ ethnic, cultural, religious, regional, political orientation and economic activity. The Rukunegara (National Charter) was created as an ideology to be embraced by Malaysians from all walks of life. A Department of National Unity was established as a bureaucratic instrument to keep watch over the state of ethnic relations in Malaysia.

Malaysia had since been in a state of ???stable tension,??™ which means that we have been living in a society dominated by many contradictions but we have managed to solve most of them through a continuous process of consensus-seeking negotiations, sometimes the process itself became a solution.

The downside of the on-going negotiation between ethnic interest groups in Malaysia is that the potentially negative and divisive ethnic fault lines, based on very significant differences in religion, language, dress and diet, have become highlighted more so than ever before. To the prophets of doom, notably foreign journalists, Malaysia has been perceived as a society facing an imminent danger of breaking down for the slightest of reasons.

In general Malaysians remain more optimistic and believe that they have learnt the bitter lesson that nobody gains from an open ethnic conflict manifesting in violence. But they remain sociologically vigilant and chose consensus, not conflict, as the path for the future.

Nevertheless, they also realize that sweeping things under the carpet was not the solution. Indeed, they have become acutely aware that contestation between the different ethnic groups will not simply disappear and cannot be ignored.

So, instead of choosing street violence as a solution to settle their differences, they decided that the only rational and reasonable avenue left for them was in the realm of public discourse. Nonetheless, sometimes, Malaysians do sometimes engage themselves in peaceful street demonstrations. Whenever the authorities felt that the public discourse on ethnic differences, articulated at times in the form of street demonstrations, was slowly getting out-of-hand they were swift to dampen the tinder before it broke into a fire.

As a result, the public discourse on ethnic differences amongst Malaysians since the recent burst of public demonstrations has become highly sensible and has been handled with great sensitivity. The discourse thus far has been a healthy one, whether it is through traditional mass media platform or through the channels of the more recent electronic media, such as the internet, blogs and sms.

Malaysians prefer ???tongue wagging not parang wielding??™

Generally, discussion on the state of ethnic relations in Malaysia, whether in the open or in private, has been a reasoned and rational one, although it can become heated at times. But in the aftermath of May 1969, Malaysians have clearly stated that they prefer ???tongue wagging not parang (machete) wielding.??? This simply means that they prefer to talk instead of resorting to violence. I hereby present three instances for our reflection.
Instance 1

In 2006, a public discourse on ethnic relations in Malaysia was triggered by comments made in a local newspaper by Professor Khoo Kay Kim (The New Sunday Times, 19 February 2006), a well-known and respected historian, indeed acclaimed as one of the architects of the Rukunegara (National Charter). He was concerned about the ???worrying state??? of the relationship between ethnic groups in Malaysia. His remarks drew equally important and healthy reactions from a broad spectrum of the concerned public, in the printed and electronic media.

Professor Khoo Kay Kim expressed concerned that ethnic unity in Malaysia was still in a ???fragile state.??™ He suggested that one of the possible solutions would be to teach cultural history. Some agreed and others disagreed with him.

It is useful to point out that the main concern of Professor Khoo Kay Kim was a legitimate one, indeed one often expressed by Malaysians from all walks of life. They feel that ethnic relations in Malaysia seemed to be continuously in a ???worrying and fragile state.??? They also argue that the situation has become so because there have been numerous misunderstandings and incidents of miscommunication between the different ethnic groups. This situation arises from the fact that they know so little about one another beyond the prejudices and stereotypes that they learnt from bedtime stories and the rumour mongering ???tradition??™ at the family and grassroots level in Malaysia.

It is not uncommon for young Malaysians to grow up and survive until adolescence cocooned in their specific ethnic socio-cultural environment, be it Malay, Chinese or Indian. This happens partly because of the barriers created by significantly different languages and religious traditions, partly because different ethnic groups live in segregated physical locations, and partly as a result of the institutionalization of the vernacular school system, where one is most likely to attend a school where one??™s own mother tongue is a primary focus of the curriculum. The overall end result of all these is the thickening of the barriers creating ethnic insulation and segregation at the individual personal level.

The ???vernacularization,??™ at the macro-national level, of Malaysia??™s modern electoral politics, namely, in the form of ethnic-based political parties which survives on ???ethnic support and loyalties??™, further shaped the making of an insulated, segregated and ethnicised individual Malaysians who are only at home in their own ???vernacular??™ social collectives. In other words, Malaysians are usually united or homogenized within their respective ???ethnic psychic??™ realms within everyday-life. However, at the official macro-national level, they do sometimes symbolically express a form of shared viewpoints and unity as Malaysians, but this is mostly a ???situational??™ rather than lasting phenomenon.

The continuous swinging of the identity pendulum between a ???situational??™ and ???official??™ ethnic positions experienced thus far by Malaysians, both as individuals and social collectives, has generated the perception amongst Malaysians themselves, as expressed by Prof. Khoo Kay Kim, that ethnic relations in Malaysia are in a ???worrying and fragile state.??? Professor Khoo Kay Kim then suggested that as one of the possible solutions to stop this worry and make Malaysia less fragile is to teach cultural history.

The moot question here is that in the vernacular education system that Malaysia has had for more than a century now, and which is still functioning well, would the ???cultural history??™ proposed be a ???vernacularised??™ and ethnically-specific version or a ???homogenised??™ national one Professor Khoo Kay Kim??™s contribution would have been enhanced if he had analysed the limited success in the history of the mainstream national school system that uses the national language, Bahasa Malaysia, as its medium of instruction and how the vernacular schools which use Mandarin, Tamil and a few other languages have thrived.

In other words, I would argue that there has been an active process promoting the reproduction of ethnic differences and the polarization of ethnic groups in Malaysia through the presence of vernacular schools, partly funded by the government. The public schools in the mainstream education system, which uses Bahasa Malaysia, the official national language as their medium of instruction becomes the ???educational canopy??™ over the whole system. However, only about 70% of school-going children are enrolled in these.

It is an irony that at the basic primary level of the education system Malaysia continues to reproduce ethnic differences, and yet at the higher levels, the efforts at integration are earnestly pursued, albeit an incomplete one. I would argue that this is one of the central factors that has been generating Malaysia??™s state of stable tension, or as Prof. Khoo Kay Kim??™s words suggest, a ???worrying and fragile state of ???ethnic relations??? in Malaysia. The vernacular education system provides the language and idiom of opposition whether in official or daily contexts, and is the perfect breeding ground for different ethnic viewpoints and embedded interests. In contrast to this, the national language based mainstream education is still the most important ???trans-ethnic canopy,??™ providing the over-arching structure which holds the society together, along with the federalist form of governance and the capitalist market forces.

Instance 2

In 2007, the discussion on ethnic relations became more widespread and indeed serious owing to the impending introduction of a compulsory university course, called ???Ethnic Relations,??? in some 20 public universities in Malaysia, and the publication of the ???Ethnic Relations Module??? to be used by some 20,000 newly enrolled university students, from all faculties, for whom the course was compulsory.

The main objective of the ???Ethnic Relations??? course was to raise awareness of the state of ethnic relations in Malaysia amongst the university students from all faculties and programs, in the natural sciences, social sciences and others, and facilitate mutual understanding among the ethnic groups by imparting detailed information about the culture and values of each to a level not normally understood. Indeed, as social actors themselves, students are at the verge of entering not only the job market but, more importantly, as the expanding intelligentsia of Malaysian society. It was envisaged that the sharing of their lived experience of their individual ethnic identities in a classroom situation would enable them to exchange among themselves their personal experiences and views to members of different ethnic groups, thus facilitating mutual understanding. This process of face-to-face interaction mediated by lecturers trained as facilitators was planned as an optimum context for raising the awareness of the need for cross-cultural understanding in Malaysia n society.

I was appointed by Malaysia??™s Ministry of Higher Education to be the General Editor of the ???Ethnic Relations Module.??? Apparently, the decision to offer this role to me was endorsed by the Malaysian Cabinet. I should have been overjoyed to be given such a ???national honour,??™ but, as a social anthropologist, I also know it is also a ???sociological booby trap??™ through which I would have to navigate extremely careful in accomplishing the extremely challenging task and to be constantly vigilant and watchful in the long-run. To put it bluntly, ???it??™s a difficult job with unknown consequences.???

When my acceptance to take up the task of being the General Editor of the ???Ethnic Relations Module??? was made public, I was at once labeled a ???patriot??? [pejuang bangsa] and ???sycophant??? [pembodek kerajaan] by friends and detractors, respectively. However, I accepted the praise and criticism with an open mind, just like my gurus, the two Syeds, namely, Syed Husin Ali and Syed Hussein Alatas, both of whom have been exemplary academicians and social activists in our society.

Editing and finally making the module available to be used in July 2007 was a life-defining journey for me personally. From the original 350-page draft it had to be reduced to a 150-page draft, complete with bibliography and an index.

However, one unique feature of this module is that every draft was sent to the Malaysian Cabinet for review. It went to the Cabinet at least three times and was submitted a few more times at the Ministry of Higher Education level, before it was finally presented to the public in January 2007. The feedback received from the Cabinet and government officials is interesting to note. It ranges from comments about content to form. I believe the draft was passed on to be read and reviewed by other interested parties from within the different members of the ruling party coalition, namely, the Malaysian Chinese Association (MCA), Gerakan party and Malaysian Indian Congress (MIC). To the best of my knowledge, never before, in the history of post-colonial Malaysia, did such a publication has had received so much attention from the Cabinet.

When the final draft was made public in the media on 24 January 2007, we have another round of public reactions, this time focusing on, not so much the content, but the editorial quality (grammar, spelling errors and a few other matters). There were also comments by community-based organizations, political parties and individuals on the content. In fact, I was invited to a series of public forums and seminars organized by groups representing a cross-section of public interests, and these discussions were reported widely in the print and electronic media. These activities allowed me to improve further some sections of the module.

Will this exercise of consciousness-raising concerning the importance of ethnic issues and the need for more mutual understanding of cultural forms has an effect on future ethnic relations in Malaysia We have to wait for the answers after a national evaluation is conducted, in the near future, on the impact of the ???Ethnic Relations??? course upon the students who have followed it.

Instance 3

The debate on ethnic unity became more active and widespread after the Malaysian 12th General Elections held on the 8th March 2008, which resulted in the coalition of opposition parties gaining a strong foothold of representation and the ruling National Front coalition losing its two-third majority in the Malaysian parliament.

Matters considered taboo and sensitive previously, such as on the issue of corruption in the public service, nepotism in the awarding of huge lucrative public construction projects, and the not-so-transparent quality of government agencies were discussed and debated openly, not surprisingly in a highly critical manner. But underlining all the debates is the fact that the issues were all ???ethnicised??? in one way or another, meaning that each was discussed within the context of a particular ethnic group??™s agenda or viewpoint.

The most obvious example is when Malaysians discussed matters relating to the distribution of economic wealth in the country. When the violent ethnic riots occurred in Kuala Lumpur on May 13 1969, after the 3rd General Elections of May 10, 1969, there was widespread concern that violence would characterize future of ethnic relations in Malaysia. The multi-ethnic National Consultative Council set up in 1970, as a reaction to this incident, decided that the root of the problem was the economic backwardness of the indigenous groups, or bumiputera as they are known, the majority of whom were Malay Muslims.

Their brainchild, the New Economic Policy (NEP) was introduced in 1971. It was to run for 20 years, until 1990. It had two main objectives: first, the eradication of poverty in Malaysia irrespective of the race or ethnicity of the poor; second, the restructuring of Malaysia society, so that occupation were no longer associated with particular ethnic groups ??“ Malays with the rural and largely subsistence peasant economy, the Chinese Malaysian with urban based entrepreneurial activity and wealth, and the Indian Malaysians with underprivileged rural plantation labour. The over-arching long-term aim of the NEP was to create national unity through top-down economic-oriented public policy instruments of the NEP to effect a more equitable distribution of the country??™s wealth among the different ethnic groups.

The single most highlighted aspect of the NEP has been about the creation of wealth ownership for the economically backward indigenous Malay peasantry who made up 56 per cent of the population at the time but who owned only two per cent of the national wealth. A target was set for them to achieve 30 per cent ownership of the national economic wealth in 20 years. When the 20-year period was over, only 20per cent of the equity share had been achieved by the Malays, according to the government. But recently, a group of researchers argued that the target had in fact been achieved. So, the debate goes on about the NEP until today especially concerning its success or failure. The main criticism has been that the distribution of the NEP??™s wealth among the indigenous people resulting from the NEP has been uneven, and indeed the internal disparity in income within the indigenous group had increased. The distribution process has been said to have been dominated by almost uncontrolled corrupt practices. On the positive side, a number of studies have shown that the size of the indigenous middle class expanded significantly in the short period of 20 years.

But the biggest public complaints concerning the outcomes of the NEP so far have come from the Indian Malaysian community, who on November 25 2007 launched a massive street demonstration in Kuala Lumpur. This was organized by HINDRAF (Hindu Rights Action Force), led by a group of disgruntled Indian middle-class professionals, mainly lawyers. What began as an intra-ethnic class struggle has now become a national inter-ethnic one, with the indigenous-Malay dominated government as the target. The issues that were raised by the group were not only economic ones but also religious, educational and a host of others. The present government is doing its level best to address the demands of the Indians in an amicable and peaceful way.

One significant effect of these discussions and protests on Malaysian society as a whole is that Malaysians have realized that they have been able to deal with them in a more matured manner than ever before. This was demonstrated during the recent 2008 General Elections. In spite of the large victory obtained by the opposition coalition, unlike in the case of the 1969 General Election, there was no outcome of ethnic rioting or violence. Everyone was cool and composed, the winners and losers accepted what happened in a reasoned and rational manner, demonstrating the contemporary Malaysian attitude that ???tongue wagging and not parang waving??? is the preferred choice. In short, every Malaysian is a winner.

Maintaining a middle ground

Everybody knows that Malaysia has many ethnic groups of various cultural backgrounds but Malaysians are always striving to survive in one peaceful nation. This is the most striking and positive feature of Malaysian society in the last 40 years or so. It is very clear that in Malaysia, violence is not an option.

Malaysians will no doubt continue in the future to discuss openly or in private about matters concerning their personal ethnic woes, intra- and inter-ethnic difficulties, in the search for a middle ground in order to safeguard their lifestyles and allow them to continue to enjoy the quality of life the country is blessed with.

We must accept the fact that we do need to conduct continuous public discourse such as the above-mentioned three instances, to remind us that we are living in a state of ???stable tension,??™ and therefore have to work very hard to maintain peace and stability in the country. However important, famous and charismatic a Malaysian, a leader or public figure is, his or her personal interest is never above the interest of the rakyat, the people. We, therefore, have to work very hard to make harmonious ethnic relations prevail, not only in the abstract realm of social theory but also in the practical sense, in the midst of daily life.

Like citizens in many other countries that have embarked on the modernization project, Malaysians have to remind themselves of the fact that there are two major components in such an endeavour, namely, economic and political factors. Finding and maintaining a balance between them is the both a necessity and also the greatest challenge.

To measure the success of the economic component is relatively easy. Growth figures help us to ascertain where we are heading in our industrialization push. GNP figures and the poverty line indicate the economic spread, even or uneven. The thriving shopping malls demonstrate the healthy expansion of our middle class and our love for the globalised consumerist lifestyle.

However, to achieve the political target of nation-building, by realizing national integration, to be conducted through the implementation of various national policies — in the fields of education, language and culture — is not an easy task. In fact, the exercise of nation-building, on the whole, is a nebulous one. The measurement of its success is equally an imprecise one. However, we hope to establish in the near future set of ???national integration indicators??™ or ???unity index??™ in Malaysia.

In 1991, our former Prime Minister, Tun Mahathir Mohamed, outlined the nine challenges in creating a united Malaysian nation, or Bangsa Malaysia, in his famous ???Vision 2020??™ statement. With this, he clearly implies that we are still building the nation, we will to work hard to achieve it. He hopes it could be accomplished by the year 2020.

When proposing his Vision 2020, he must have realized that we are still saddled with a number of historical-structural impediments in the nation-building process, be they in the education, socio-cultural and economic spheres as well as Malaysia??™s modern electoral system. Perhaps the only useful method for measuring our success in nation-building, obviously complemented by our economic achievements, is to compare our overall performance with that of other multi-ethnic countries which were once considered to be success stories, such as Sri Lanka and Yugoslavia.

That we have been perceived as a model of success by the developing countries, sufficient for them to have confidence in selecting to play the leading role as the Chair for NAM (Non-Aligned Movement which has 118 member countries), OIC (Organization of Islamic Conference which has 57 member countries) and ASEAN (Association Southeast Asian Nations which has 10 member countries), speaks volumes for our achievement.

Therefore, the state of ethnic relations in Malaysia cannot be evaluated solely based on subjective personal evaluations of the phenomenological kind by a few Malaysians, however famous and serious they are. We appreciate their concerns. We value their reminders. But we have to reject their rather simplistic and skin-deep comments.

It is important to remember that ???unity is not uniformity.??? Total unity and absolute integration are but utopias. Crying for their absence could mislead others and would generate alienating, indeed, violent anomic consequences that must be avoid at all cost. We have to live with our differences. Indeed, we have been doing so for decades, even if the situation is not completely perfect. We are proud as Malaysians that we have done much better than other countries with similar multi-ethnic societies.

Lessons learnt

However, to maintain ethnic harmony at any cost is not an easy task. To ignore this is to invite unfathomable difficulties and dire consequences, such as we have witnessed in the black events of May 13 1969. Perhaps it is against such a background that the government has recently made the effort to introduce ???Ethnic Relations??? as a subject to be offered to our students at institutions of higher learning. This program may not create national integration and ethnic unity overnight but it is a starting point that we all need to have access to, not only in relation to our cultural history, as suggested by Professor Khoo Kay Kim, but concerning matters much more far reaching, such as economic equality and equity, and building a strong democratic tradition.

Malaysia will remain one of the few nations in the world today, whose experience and track record in dealing with many ethnicities and many cultures is a useful one. It is not a perfect one. It is not easily replicated but it is a useful for other states to study closely and perhaps gaining some useful insights from it.

I wish to end my presentation with a quotation from Joseph Stiglitz, the Nobel Prize Winner for Economics in 2001, about Malaysia and how it had handled the massive Asian economic crises of 1997-1998 that, if not managed sensitively and successfully, could have led to grave and violent consequences for the state of stable tension in Malaysia??™s ethnic relations. He said:

???I had the opportunity to talk to Malaysia??™s prime minister after the riots in Indonesia. His country has also experienced ethnic riots in the past. Malaysia has done a lot to prevent their recurrence, including putting in a program to promote employment for ethnic Malays. Mahathir knew that all gains in building a multiracial society could be lost, had he let the IMF dictate its policies to him and his country and then riots had broken out. For him, preventing a severe recession was not just a matter of economics, it was a matter of the survival of the nation.???
[Joseph Stiglitz, Globalization & its Discontents, 2003, p.120]

The good management and balance of economic growth and distribution is necessary to any nation, but more so it seems in a multi-ethnic society. But the case of Malaysia proves the fact that economic development and prosperity alone is not sufficient to maintain political stability. We have to turn to the realm of non-economic factors in the end. In this context, the message is very clear.

In dealing with the non-economic factors there is a huge contribution made by knowledge generated within the social sciences and humanities. Sadly, these are usually neglected in developing economies like Malaysia because we are often overwhelmed by the pursuit of science and technology to bring about much needed economic development and prosperity. This neglect has to be urgently addressed.

Bibliography (Selected)

Fazilah Idris et. al, 2007, ???Pengharmonian Hubungan Etnik Di Kalangan Pelajar Insitusi Pengajian Tinggi: Peranan Sikap dan Kepentingannya,??? suatu kertas untuk Seminar Kebangsaan Ketamadunan, Hubungan Etnik dan Kokurukulum, anjuran Universiti Malaya, di Muzium Seni Asia UM, 20-21 Mach.

Mansor Mohd. Nor, Abdul Rahman Aziz & Mohammad Ainuddin Iskandar Lee, 2006, Hubungan Etnik di Malaysia, Prentice Hall Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur.

Mansor Mohd Nor, 2000, ???A Study on Ethnic Polarisation in the Institutions of Higher Learning,??? A Report for the Department of National Unity and National Integration, Prime Minister??™s Department of Malaysia.

Mansor Mohd. Nor, 2000a, ???Crossing Ethnic Borders in Malaysia: Measuring the Fluidity of Ethnic Identity and Group Formation, ??? Akademika, 55 (July): 61-82

Mansor Mohd Noor, 1998, ???Ethnic Preferences among University Students Universiti Sains Malaysia,??? A Report of CPR, Universiti Sains Malaysia.

Mansor Mohd. Noor & Michael Banton, 1992, “The Study of Ethnic Alignment: A New Technique and An Application in Malaysia,” Ethnic and Racial Studies, 15(4):599-613.

Mansor Mohd. Noor & Shamsul Amri Baharuddin, 2005, ???Transformasi Perhubungan Etnik di Malaysia,??? dalam Integrasi Etnik di Institusi Pengajian Tinggi Awam, Mansor Mohd Noor (Ed), Institut Penyelidikan Penyelidikan Tinggi Negara, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Monograf 6, ms:17-27.

Ong Puay Liu. 2007. ???Identity matters: Ethnic salience and perceptions in Malaysia??? in Abdul Rahman Embong (ed.). Rethinking ethnicity and nation-building: Malaysia, Sri Lanka & Fiji in comparative perspective. Kuala Lumpur: Malaysian Social Science Association. Chapter 9: 216-234.

Shamsul A. B., 2004, ???Texts and Collective Memories: The Construction of ???Chinese??™ and ???Chineseness??™ from the Perspective of a Malay???, in Leo Suryadinata (ed), Ethnic Relations and Nation-Building in Southeast Asia, Singapore: ISEAS, pp. 109-144.

Shamsul Amri Baharuddin, et al, 2003, Membina Bangsa Malaysia Jil. 1, 2 & 3, Kuala Lumpur: Jabatan Perpaduan Negara, 2003.

Shamsul A.B. & Sity Daud, 2006, ???Nation, ethnicity, and contending discourse in the Malaysian state,??? in State Making in Asia, edited by Richard Boyd and Tak-Wing Ngo, London: Routledge, pp.131-139 (co-author Sity Daud).

Shamsul Amri Baharuddin, Budaya Yang Tercabar, Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa & Pustaka, 2007.

Shamsul Amri Baharuddin [Shamsul A.B.] (Ketua Editor), 2007, Modul Hubungan Etnik, Penerbit UITM, Shah Alam.

Stiglitz, Joseph, Globalization and Its Discontents, New York, W.W. Norton, 2003.

About KITA …

The Institute of Ethnic Studies (KITA) was officially established on October 8th, 2007 by Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM) to undertake academic research on subjects pertaining to ethnic studies in Malaysia. This research institute is ???only one of its kind??™ in Malaysia, focusing specifically on ???ethnic studies??™ with thematic studies orientation. The Institute emerged out of the need to maintain at home the present peaceful inter- and intra-ethnic existence against worldwide problematic and sometimes violent ethnic situations.

KITA plays a lead role in undertaking academic work which can inform public policy makers, civil service administrators and programme implementers along with the general society and the academic fraternity on ethnic relations in Malaysia. The research undertaken will be able to determine critical concerns regarding inter- and intra-ethnic issues, provide analytical frameworks on the strengths and weaknesses of government policies and programmes as well as strategies and new initiatives in addressing them.

At present, KITA conducts only research (basic, applied and strategic) and does not offer undergraduate and postgraduate studies degree programmes. However, those interested to do research in the field of ethnic studies and be associated with KITA will have to enrol as postgraduate students at any of the relevant academic faculties within UKM but are welcome to apply funding from KITA, in the form of research fellowships, which are also available for post-doctoral candidates.

Organisationally, KITA has five research clusters, each being led by a prominent scholar or a highly experienced professional person. The five research clusters are: Social Theory and Ethnic Studies; Ethnicity and Religion; Ethnicity at Workplace; Ethnicity and Consumerism, and The Arts and Social Integration.

About the UKM Ethnic Studies Paper Series

UKM Ethnic Studies Paper Series marks the inaugural publication of the Institute of Ethnic Studies (KITA), UKM. The purpose of this Paper Series is in line with UKM??™s official status as a research university under the 9th Malaysia Plan. The Series provides a premise for the dissemination of research findings and theoretical debates among academics and researchers in Malaysia and world-wide regarding issues related with ethnic studies.

All articles submitted for this Series will be refereed by at least one reviewer before publication. Opinions expressed in this Series are solely those of the writer(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views and policies of KITA.

For further information, please contact:
Chief Editor
UKM Ethnic Studies Paper Series Committee
Institute of Ethnic Studies (KITA)
Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia
43600 Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia
E-mail: [email protected]; [email protected]